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What do Hollywood and Bollywood consider shameful?

What do Hollywood and Bollywood consider shameful?


Sunny Rai, Khushang Jilesh Zaveri, Shreya Havaldar, Soumna Nema, Lyle Ungar and Sharath Chandra Guntuku have a fabulous new movie article! Using web scraping, natural language processing (LIWC) and ChatGPT4, they reveal that Bollywood often focuses on shame, particularly when it comes to female sexuality.

In Sinful angelsfor example, the rapist says to a teenager:

Rai and his colleagues collected more than 5,000 movie subtitles (using a web crawler), then identified common themes using natural language processing techniques. The Linguistic Word Count Survey (LIWC) was used to determine the correlation between various psychosocial categories and shame and pride. ChatGPT4 then received prompts about who is ashamed and why.

Rai and colleagues recognize the limitations of large language models (LLMs). By hand-coding a random sample of 200 dialogues, they found that the gender was incorrect for 13 samples. Rai and colleagues suggest that

the prediction error for gender is between 8 and 23% for Bollywood and between 5 and 15% for Hollywood.

This is an important caveat. Glory!

In Bollywood films, shame is often associated with women, family and sexuality. Shame also triggers aggressive reactions: conflicts, swearing, and angry emotions. This model is unique in Bollywood.

Bollywood films tend to associate shame with gender roles, disrespect, family, sexual harassment and deviance (as shown in Figure 2 below).

Hollywood, on the other hand, tends to look down on poverty. American cinematic culture therefore appears much more materialistic; India is more sexually puritanical.

In Bollywood, glory is often collective; the protagonists are proud of the nation, the honor of the family and the success of their sons. Think of Telegu epics like €€€ And Bahubaali!

While Hollywood actors tend to be proud of their individual achievements.

ChatGPT was asked to specify common shame and pride triggers. Rai and his colleagues note that Bollywood tends to celebrate people's ability to please and provide for their parents, that is, to fulfill their father's dreams.

Both sectors vary considerably by gender. Bollywood films sometimes portray the birth of girls as shameful, while Hollywood films encourage queers and condemn sexism.

Bollywood storylines mostly focus on shame. In Figure 4 below, a higher negative value for women (compared to men) indicates that a higher share of the dialogue regarding women is about shame compared to pride.

Whereas in Hollywood there is more emphasis on pride.

Rai and his colleagues analyze a range of shameful activities and track their respective associations with men and women. They find that shameful promiscuity is more often associated with female characters, while shameful poverty is more generally linked to male characters. Poverty, incompetence, alcoholism and cowardice are generally presented as faults in men. In this respect, the two sectors are almost identical.

Neither industry shames men for their promiscuity. What a surprise !

What a fantastic article, using Big Data and LLMs to explore cross-cultural variations! Congratulations to Sunny Rai, Khushang Jilesh Zaveri, Shreya Havaldar, Soumna Nema, Lyle Ungar and Sharath Chandra Guntuku!

I doubt readers will be surprised; These results follow nationally representative attitude surveys regarding premarital sex, casual sex and homosexuality. Although it is unclear whether films shape or respond to cultural preferences, the two are clearly correlated.

World Values ​​Survey 2017-2022

Hollywood's particular aversion to poverty is also consistent with data published by Pew and the Wall Street Journal: some societies are much more materialist. As I wrote previously, there are a lot cross-cultural variation in desire for economic prosperity.

All this is consistent with my theory of Honor-income compromise. In societies where men's honor is tied to women's chastity, women may forgo economic opportunities. Compared to countries with similar economic development, female employment remains low.

Rai et als' dataset begins in 1990. In the 1980s and early 90s, Bollywood storylines often featured a young man avenging the brutal rape of his sister. But my small sample suggests that Indian films have become more diverse.

By programming their web crawler to complete movie scripts with corresponding release dates, Rai and his colleagues were able to explore changes over time. The timestamps would also allow them to compare rates of cultural liberalization: which industry has seen more rapid change? Sex and the City first aired in 1998 and highlighted women's sexual pleasure. It was a game changer.

What about other countries and cultures? Personally, I would be extremely curious to see this method replicated for all languages ​​and locations. How does China compare? This would be a good test of my theory that East Asia tends to idealize upward mobility and economic prosperity!

Next, I look forward to software engineers using computer vision to analyze movies!

Also see Smrutisnat Jenathis is an excellent essay, I can't believe the kind of trash our parents watched when they were my age.




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