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Appendix A: Political leaders and parties by country

Appendix A: Political leaders and parties by country


All assessments of political leaders and parties were collected between February 20 and May 22, 2023. Refer to our International Methodology website for specific fieldwork dates for each country. We worked with local research partners in each country to identify the most relevant politicians and parties in autumn 2022, when the questionnaire was finalized.

The national leaders included in the survey were the head of state or head of government in office at the time the survey was conducted. Since the completion of fieldwork, Indonesia has held general elections in which then-incumbent President Joko Widodo was ineligible due to term limits. Argentina elected a new president, Javier Milei, who took office in December 2023. In Nigeria, fieldwork took place immediately after the elections on February 25, 2023. Bola Tinubu won the elections but did not officially took office in May, once the fieldwork was completed. complete. Therefore, we classify former President Muhammadu Buhari as the leader of Nigeria at the time of the survey.

Politicians included as opposition leaders in the survey are generally leaders of the main opposition party. In some cases where an election took place at the time of the survey, we measured attitudes toward the leading candidate(s). And in some countries, if there was no single, clear opposition leader, we asked for the assessment of several politicians.

In some countries, the leader of the opposition at the time of the investigation is now part of a governing coalition. In Poland, for example, Donald Tusk became Prime Minister after his party, Civic Platform, and other opposition parties won enough seats in the October 2023 elections to form a majority coalition. For our analysis, President Andrzej Duda is considered the leader of the country since the president has the power to appoint the prime minister and, in specific situations, dissolve Parliament.

In the Netherlands, the Party for Freedom, then opposition leader Geert Wilders, won the largest number of seats in the November 2023 elections, although so far he had difficulty forming a coalition. Until a coalition government is formed, Mark Rutte remains the head of an interim government and the next leader is unknown.

We also asked about between two and six political parties in each country based on the number of major parties, as well as feedback from our local research partners. This is usually the main ruling party or the largest party(ies) in a coalition government, as well as at least one major opposition party. In Europe, we have always asked for evaluations of the main populist parties, even though they often do not receive a significant share of the vote in national elections.

A table showing the ratings of national leaders, as of spring 2023
A table showing the ratings of opposition leaders, as of spring 2023
A table showing the ratings of political parties, in spring 2023




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