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Google trained a trillion parameter AI language model




An anonymous reader cites a report from VentureBeat. Google researchers have developed and benchmarked a method that claims to be able to train a language model with over a trillion parameters. They say the 1.6 trillion parameter model, which appears to be the largest in size to date, has achieved up to four times the speedup of the previous largest Google development language model (T5-XXL). Large-scale training is an effective path to a powerful model, as researchers point out in a treatise detailing their work. A simple architecture, backed by a large dataset and a large number of parameters, outperforms much more complex algorithms. However, effective and large-scale training can be very computationally intensive. That’s why researchers sought a technique called a switch transformer, a “sparsely activated” technique that uses only a subset of the model’s weights, or parameters that transform the input data in the model.

In the experiment, researchers used 32 TPU cores in Colossal Clean Crawled Corpus, a 750GB-sized dataset of text scraped from Reddit, Wikipedia, and other web sources, using several different Switch Transformer models. Was pre-trained. They impose other challenges on the model, such as predicting words that are missing 15% of the words where they are masked, and getting text to answer a list of increasingly difficult questions. did. Researchers have found that the 1.6 trillion parameter model, which includes 20,48 experts (Switch-C), is in contrast to the smaller model (Switch-XXL), which contains 395 billion parameters and 64 experts. There is no training instability. ” However, in one benchmark (Sanford Question Answering Dataset (SQuAD)), Switch-C scores are lower than Switch-XXL (89.6) (87.7), and researchers are uncertain between the quality of fine-tuning and computational requirements. I think it’s due to the relationship. And the number of parameters.

In this case, Switch Transformer has benefited from many downstream tasks. For example, researchers have shown that pre-training can be up to 7x faster while using the same amount of computational resources. Researchers have demonstrated that large sparse models can be used to create smaller, denser models that are fine-tuned with 30% of the tasks. Greater model quality improvements. In one test in which the Switch Transformer model was trained to translate between more than 100 different languages, researchers observed “universal improvements” in 101 languages, with 91% of the languages ​​compared to the baseline model. Benefited from more than four times the speedup. “This work focuses on very large models, but on models with only two experts, performance is improved while easily meeting the memory constraints of commonly available GPUs or TPUs. I also understand, “the researcher wrote in the treatise. “We cannot completely maintain the quality of the model, but we can achieve a compression ratio of 10 to 100 times by distilling the sparse model into a high density model while achieving about 30% of the quality improvement of the expert model. . “

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