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Description: Mechanism and accuracy of Covid-19 antibody testing




I’m waiting COVID-19 Did the vaccine work for me?Are there any antibodies to work on? Coronavirus once again? These are some of the questions that come to mind when people book antibody tests.

As the country begins to reopen, people are making sure it is 100% safe before embarking on a new normal. As a result, many people are seen relying on antibody tests to confirm their antibody tests. Immunity to new coronavirus.. Many countries require antibody tests to determine if vaccinated travelers need to be quarantined, but similar reports are given before allowing people to return to work. I have an office that I am looking for.

However, there has been much debate about the effectiveness of such tests and whether they can be indicators of immunity against coronavirus infection, so what are these tests and how they are. Explain if it works.

What is an antibody?

Antibodies are proteins produced by the body’s immune system to fight certain viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies directed at one virus do not protect the body from another because they are so specific to the intended target. In other words, if you have measles, your body has antibodies to the measles virus, which does not protect you from catching the coronavirus.

Therefore, the antibody test does not check for the virus itself. Instead, it checks to see if the immune system (the body’s defense against the disease) has responded to the infection.

How Does the Antibody Test Work?

Of the five major types of antibodies produced after infection, the test looks for only three of the immunoglobulins A (IgA), M (IgM), and (IgG).

White blood cells, especially B lymphocytes, first produce IgM antibodies after being presented with a foreign antigen, but then switch to IgG or IgA antibody production. IgG antibodies are the most common type found in the blood and play the most important role in immunizing against bacteria and viruses, while IgA antibodies tend to be found in body fluids such as saliva.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, IgM and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 antigen are usually produced 2-3 weeks after infection, but it is not yet known how long they will remain in the blood. Hmm.

Positive antibody test results indicate that you may have antibodies from a previous infection. Even if you have never had Covid-19 symptoms, your antibody test may be positive. This happens when you have an asymptomatic infection.

A SARS-CoV-2 antibody test may be positive even if you do not actually have a particular antibody. This is called false positive.

However, negative results indicate that you are not exposed to the coronavirus, or if you are exposed, the test time is too early for your body to produce antibodies, or the level of antibody present at the time of the test limits the detection of the test. It is below. After infection, it usually takes 1-3 weeks for the body to make antibodies.

How many types of antibody tests are there and how accurate are they?

There are two types of tests that can determine if you have developed an antibody against a virus. A laboratory test in which a medical professional needs to take a blood sample from a patient and send it to the laboratory for results. Alternatively, a quick point-of-care test that you can take at home using your finger-stabbed blood.

A Cochrane review of 38 antibody test accuracy studies in four countries found that tests looking for IgG / IgM antibodies were less sensitive during the first week of onset of symptoms and were capable of correctly identifying samples containing antibodies. I understand (30.1%). Sensitivity increased by week 2 (72.2%) and peaked at week 3 (91.4%).

The reviewers concluded that “antibody tests are likely to play a useful role in detecting previous Sars-CoV-2 infections when used more than 15 days after the onset of symptoms.” ..

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But a report written by Scientific Pandemic The April 2020 Emergency Science Advisory Group’s Behavioral Influenza Group tested positive for antibodies if 5% of the population had Covid-19, even with a specificity of 98% 28 % Have expressed concern that they may not have been infected.

Does a positive result mean that I am immune to the virus?

This is a question that researchers want to answer. In some illnesses, the presence of antibodies means that you are immune or protected from future infections. Your body has learned to recognize the virus and has created antibodies to fight it.

However, for others, immunity can weaken over time. Researchers hope that having some antibodies to the coronavirus can protect you from more severe cases of Covid-19. More studies will help clarify the relationship between having antibodies and being immune or protected from future SARS-CoV-2 infections.

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The US Food and Drug Administration, on the other hand, considers testing unnecessary and unreliable and should not be used to determine how much protection someone gets from the Covid-19 vaccine. “If the results of antibody tests are misinterpreted, there is a potential risk that people may take less precautions against SARS-CoV-2 exposure,” says the FDA.

One of the most mysterious things about coronavirus is the difference in its effect on individuals, so the test is the best way to determine if you have Covid-19. It is important to remember that Covid-19 can be caught or unknowingly spread to others, whether the antibody test is positive or negative, with or without symptoms. there is.





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