The gut microbiota has received a lot of attention, but new studies show that gut fungi are also important microorganisms in gut function and health, which affect human health.
Intestinal health. Image Credit: metamorworks / Shutterstock.com
Contrast effects of intestinal fungal communities
In recent years, the role of microbial diversity and abundance in the gut has prompted extensive research on the benefits of maintaining a healthy gut flora. This has led to the rise of probiotic supplements, microbial therapies, but studies now show that bacterial communities are not the only actors in the gut that produce such benefits.
New Research Scientists at the University of Utah have shown that fungi also play an important role in the balance of healthy bowel function. This study, published in Nature, describes how the fungus propagates in a healthy gut, but it does cause intestinal damage that can contribute to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It can also cause.
Fungi are far more abundant than bacteria and have been thoroughly studied. This work adds an important part to the big picture. “
June Round, PhD, Professor of Pathology, Faculty of Health Studies, University of Utah
To investigate the role of fungi in the gut, researchers conducted experiments in mice to demonstrate how a healthy immune system maintains a healthy diversity and abundance of fungi. However, if the system is imbalanced, IBD is more likely to occur. After Round points out that the general medical test for diagnosing Crohn’s disease, a type of IBD, relies on the detection of antibodies to the fungus, but the role of the fungus itself in the antibodies is unknown. The first hypothesis was made.
To address this knowledge gap, researchers sought to trigger an immune response to IBD. Data from diseased patient samples were used to design experiments in mice. Candida albicans Induced the strongest immune response. This species is one of the major species of fungi present in the human gut and provides important insights for the team to further investigate the role of enterobacteria.
After detection, scientists discovered antibodies produced by immune response target hyphae, a fungal cell type, that bind to proteins that help microorganisms attach to and invade the surface. This mechanism was important evidence for researchers to demonstrate the role of fungi in balancing gut health.
A fragile intestinal balancing act, but with potential supportive treatments
Using a series of experiments with mice, researchers found that the mice were inoculated. Candida I stayed healthy under normal conditions, but Candida In its invasive form, it caused intestinal damage similar to IBD. The results showed how a healthy antibody response in the gut suppresses the disease by recognizing harmful hyphal fungi.
However, IBD is just one of many fungal-related health conditions, including conditions such as vaginal yeast infection. Therefore, using existing vaccinations tested for yeast infections, researchers found that the vaccine elicited an immune response to the adhesin protein similar to that in patients with Crohn’s disease.
This vaccine is effective in populations of mice that are prone to IBD-like conditions, and researchers are now convinced that similar vaccines will help alleviate IBD and related conditions in people.
Kyla Ost, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Round’s lab and the lead author of the study. States as follows. “The immune system is constrained Candida “This shows that communication between the host and the microbe is friendly rather than antagonistic and can benefit both,” he added.
Usually, the typical immune response is to get rid of the infection by eliminating invading organisms. However, fungi benefit from their interaction with antibodies. This is because the fungus changes from an invasive state to a rounded budding state, improving the survival of the fungus in the intestine.
These findings indicate that fungi benefit from antibody production, which may provide potential treatments for controlling gastrointestinal disease, but fungi are the key to maintaining a healthy gut. Being the first study, it provides important insights into bowel function.
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