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Long-term air pollution exposure associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease

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In particular, air pollution is associated with the development of the following neurological conditions: Parkinson’s disease When dementia In the past, and in recent incidents, it may pose a more dire threat to the U.S. population. Forest fire Contribute to the spread of PM2.5 Whole country.

Also, last year’s “State of the Air Report” found The number of days of ozone and short-term particle contamination has increased over the past few years, and many cities have increased levels of particle contamination throughout the year.

The authors of the current study pointed out that previous studies on the association between air pollution and dementia had limitations affecting reliability, so they Changes in adult thinking (ACT) A population-based prospective cohort study of the Puget Sound region of Seattle, Washington.

Investigate the association between time-varying 10-year mean exposures to PM2.5 And the incidence of dementia (primary analysis) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (secondary analysis) of all causes, researchers linked spatiotemporal model-based PM2.5 Exposure to participants’ addresses from 1978 to 2018, using age as the timeline.

The data was layered by Apolipoprotein E It is a (APOE) genotype and is tailored to gender, education, race, median household income in the neighborhood, and calendar time. The alternative model used calendar time as the time axis.

“Assumed a rise in long-term PM2.5 Exposure may be associated with a greater risk of dementia, “the researchers said. “Given the ubiquity of air pollution, we have a better understanding of the potential impacts of PM.2.5 For AD and related dementia, it can inform policies to reduce exposure to the entire population. “

Among the ACT study participants surveyed, 4166 individuals who did not lack APOE status were identified, of which 1136 were found to have dementia.

Their findings show that the average (SD) 10-year average PM2.5 It was shown to be 10.1 (2.9) mcg / m3, And each 1-mcg / m3 The 10-year mean increase in travel was associated with a 16% increased risk of dementia from all causes (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31).

“How we understood the role of air pollution exposure in health evolved from what we initially thought was fairly limited to respiratory problems, and then to the cardiovascular system. Now there is evidence of its effects on the brain, “says Senior. Author Lianne Sheppard, PhD, Professor of Environmental and Industrial Health Sciences and Biostatistics, University of Washington, statement..

In addition, each 1-mcg / m3 10-year average increase in PM movement2.5 It was associated with an 11% increased risk of AD diagnosis (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.27). The results of using calendar time as the time axis were similar.

“A reliable address history gives us more accurate air pollution estimates for survey participants,” says Shepherd. “These high-quality exposures combined with regular ACT participant follow-up and standardized diagnostic procedures contribute to the potential policy implications of this study.”

reference

Incidence of particulate matter and dementia in studies of thinking changes in Shaffer RM, Blanco MN, Li G, and other adults. Environ Health Perspect.. Published online on August 4, 2021. doi: 10.1289 / EHP9018

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