Toronto-Researchers dig deeper into lesser-known treatments for people with drug-resistant epilepsy: listening to classical music.
But it’s not just classical music.
of Small study Researchers published in Scientific Reports on Thursday found that 16 patients who listened to Mozart Sonata for at least 30 seconds had less frequent spikes in epilepsy-related brain activity, further supporting what is called the “Mozart effect.” I found that there is.
They also found that when patients listened to their favorite genre of music, it did not have a significant impact. So Mozart may be something special.
Epilepsy is a neurological condition in which bursts of electrical activity in the brain cause repeated seizures, which can range from mild to severe. As of 2018, there were about 300,000 Canadians with epilepsy.
Antiepileptic drugs exist, but about one-third of epilepsy patients are thought to be drug-resistant. This means that you will continue to experience seizures even if the prescribed medication works.
How to Cause Drug-Resistant Epilepsy Because The Accurate Causes of Epilepsy Are Very Diverse and Difficult to Identify (Not Only Genetics Are Factors, But Brain Structure, Stroke, Trauma, Infections, Unexplained Infernal Causes) Treatment is a big issue.
Since listening to music activates the brain, the idea of music as a brain treatment has been investigated for some time. And when it comes to epilepsy, especially one piece of music is at the forefront of the pack. Sonata (K.448) for Mozart’s two pianos.
People with epilepsy experience what is called inter-seizure epilepsy-like discharge (IED) along with seizures. Seizures are neurological seizures that act as biomarkers in the brain of epilepsy, which are associated with seizure frequency and cognitive impairment.
Past studies have examined interventions focused on IEDs as a potential way to limit seizures. Listening to music as a form of “nerve regulation” has been previously studied, and Mozart’s K.448 has been shown to affect the reduction of IED, the first study dating back to 1993. increase. The first study proved that listening to Mozart was more useful than listening to relaxation instructions aimed at lowering blood pressure.
“With the exception of one other composition, Mozart’s Piano Sonata K Major (K.545), the therapeutic properties of K.448 could not be reproduced with other musical stimuli,” the new study explained.
In this new study, researchers examined the results of previous studies in adults with drug-resistant epilepsy using a new method, intracranial stereo EEG, with the “Mozart K.448 effect” in the brain.
Intracranial stereo-EEG is a way scientists track brain activity, where surgical teams place electrodes just inside the skull to record electrical signals. Most previous studies used electrodes placed on the scalp. This is an insensitive method for measuring brain activity.
Researchers in this new study listened to Mozart K.448 for 15 or 90 seconds with 16 participants to measure the length of various music.
Subjects had more than 60 electrodes implanted for study.
Researchers have found that the length of music has an effect. After listening for 90 seconds, the patient had a “significant decrease” in the IED rate of the entire brain, including within the “seizure onset zone”, but when listening for only 15 seconds, the IED rate decreased, but in significant amounts. There was no.
Patients had an average reduction in global IED of 66.5% in this study, and researchers concluded that patients needed to listen for at least 30 seconds to confirm their benefits.
Looking at the areas of the brain where IED was most reduced, researchers found that significant reductions were observed primarily in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. The frontal lobe of the brain is large and essential for many important functions such as speech, working memory, and spontaneous movement.
When researchers investigated which particular intervals in music were optimal, they found that the boundaries of the preferred segments matched the notation of the songs of professional musicians.
“There was a significant association between increased frontal theta activity and the transition from longer musical boundaries,” the study said, but said there was no specific association in other music segment categories. I did. A longer music sequence meant a segment of more than 10 seconds without interruptions or shifts in the music theme.
Another major aspect of this study was to test the musical tastes of each subject and whether different types of music influenced them.
However, patients did not significantly reduce their IED when listening to their favorite music.
“Our theory of the’Mozart K.448 effect’makes a decisive difference between subjective emotional responses to music and internal and evoked emotional brain responses.” The study states.
“The musical structure defined by the sonata form can elicit a positive emotional response that may be important for antiepileptic effects,” the researchers added.
Studies have shown that if you pay close attention to the musical structure of Mozart K.448, you may be able to find more music with the same antiepileptic effect. For example, the first 90 seconds of music contrast with melodic themes and basic harmonies. Wagner’s prelude to the first act of Lohengrin, another piece of music noted in this study, began with only static chords, followed by “small changes in instruments and harmonies,” followed by a significant reduction in IED. Was not related to.
“This work was chosen to control the melody with harmony and the effect of harmony alone,” the study explained.
Researchers found that listening to music for 90 seconds after the study was not enough exposure to have a lasting effect on neural activity, the study was limited due to the small number of participants. I admitted that it was done.
“What our null IED findings on modified music, music that matches K.448, and music of the subject-favorite genre are in Mozart’s original composition, especially to interact with the pathology of epilepsy. It reinforces the claim that there may be something special. “
“These findings underscore the importance of stimulus duration and encourage future work to determine the optimal duration of music to produce a lasting therapeutic response.”
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