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Scientists have found that a humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 is detectable through saliva.

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Your saliva may tell you if you have developed the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody, suggesting something new medRxiv* Preprint survey. In the immunocompromised group, salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were associated with serum IgG titers 3-4 weeks after mRNA vaccination.

Immune-protected patients show a lower antibody response compared to healthy individuals. Regular monitoring is required as a group at high risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection.

“The magnitude of the anti-spiking IgG response in the saliva of vaccinated individuals is greater than that seen in people with mild convalescence, and vaccination results in a bactericidal immune response in the oral cavity, thereby causing viral infection. It’s encouraging because it shows that it can be reduced. ” researcher.

Taking saliva samples based on the results of the study may provide a safe and convenient way to assess immunity in this vulnerable population.

How they did it

Approximately 404 immunocompromised patients and 82 healthy participants enrolled in the study. At the time of the study, all participants were found to be free of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in their blood and were not positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

All patients received two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Both saliva and serum samples were collected before, 10, 21, and 35 days after vaccination. The second vaccination was given 3 weeks after the first dose.

Previous studies have suggested that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine induces higher IgG levels than saliva IgA levels, so IgG levels were measured.

A total of 1,870 saliva samples and 1,829 serum samples were collected throughout the study. Saliva flow was normal for the majority of participants. However, patients with CLL or primary immunodeficiency had low saliva flow.

Difference in IgG reaction in saliva

All patients showed signs of IgG antibody in saliva samples after the first vaccination.

HIV patients had a 12-fold increase in saliva IgG responsiveness, and healthy patients had a 12-fold increase. After the second dose, HIV-infected individuals increased 53-fold and healthy patients increased 74-fold.

Over 90% of HIV and healthy patients showed IgG responses in saliva samples 35 days after the first dose.

Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) / chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy had a moderate 3-fold increase in saliva IgG reactivity 21 days after vaccination. However, after the second dose, IgG reactivity increased 3- to 50-fold, suggesting a strong immune response.

Weak humoral responses were observed in people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), organ transplants, and primary immunodeficiency. These groups did not experience detectable IgG levels in saliva until two weeks after the second vaccination. Also, anti-spikes f and anti-S1 responses in saliva were lower than in HIV or HSCT / CAR-T patients. Researchers suggest that poor response after vaccination may be due to illness or immunosuppressive agents.

IgG response in saliva is associated with IgG antibody titer in serum

IgG reactivity in saliva samples was moderately associated with IgG levels 10 days after the first vaccination. However, the correlation between saliva and serum IgG levels became stronger after the second dose and two weeks after the second dose.

In patients with CLL, HSCT / CAR-T, and primary immunodeficiency, saliva samples that are reactive with Spike-f or S1 IgG are associated with serum anti-S1 antibody titers 2 weeks after the second dose. It was strongly related.

People living with HIV showed a moderate association between salivary IgG levels and serum after complete vaccination.

Being under 60 years was correlated with having a stronger serum SARS-CoV-2-2 specific IgG antibody titer.

Research limits

Researchers have not incorporated antibody isotype analysis against SARS-CoV-2 and their neutralizing potency. For some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Delta, Spike protein Mutations that allow it to be avoided or weakened Neutralizing antibody..

Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is not limited to neutralizing antibodies. Local memory B and T cell immunity play an important role in SARS-CoV-2.However, with B T cells Samples in saliva samples have not been investigated in the current study.

In addition, patients enrolled in the study were evaluated for humoral immunity after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, but it remains unclear how this works with other coronavirus vaccines.

*Important Notices

medRxiv Publish preliminary scientific reports that should not be considered definitive as they are not peer-reviewed, guide clinical practice / health-related behaviors, and should not be treated as established information.

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Sources

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2/ https://www.news-medical.net/news/20211005/Humoral-responses-to-SARS-CoV-2-are-detectable-through-saliva-scientists-find.aspx

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