The deployment of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is expanding worldwide. However, little is known about the duration of protection provided by these vaccines. Actual data on antibody kinetics are beginning to emerge, but the full picture of immune duration is not yet available.
Extensive randomized controlled trials and real-world studies have been conducted Effectiveness of BNT162b2 vaccine will be 94-95% in the prevention of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) 7 days after the second vaccination. Antibody levels in certain groups have been found to be lower, including the elderly, men, and immunosuppressed individuals. This observation suggests that antibody titers may decline faster in these groups.
Researchers monitored 197 vaccinated individuals and noted that anti-spike (S) antibody levels peaked 21-40 days after the second dose of vaccine. Anti-spike (S) antibody levels were reduced by half by day 84.A new research paper has been published in New England Journal of Medicine It reports a large study by Israeli healthcare professionals to assess the dynamics of the immune response 6 months after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine.
The survey period was from December 19, 2020 to July 9, 2021. A total of 4,868 health care workers have been hired. Participants provided blood samples for serological assays prior to receiving the first vaccination. Blood samples were then provided monthly for 6 months after receiving the second dose. Only adults with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. If participants had breakthrough infections, they were excluded from the study. Antibodies were tested during the baseline period (4-17 days after receiving the second dose) and thereafter monthly. In this study, researchers selected a subgroup that included vulnerable individuals, such as individuals over the age of 65 and those in an existing condition.
The highest antibody titers were observed between days 4 and 30 (after receiving the second dose), which was defined as the peak period. Since then, a significant decrease in immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels has been observed each month. IgG levels were reduced by a factor of 18.3 over a 6-month study period.Similar pattern Neutralizing antibodyAt first, it decreased to 1 / 3.9. In the second half of the study period, the decline was much slower, 1.2 times. NS Antibody titer Decline was associated with age, gender, and pre-existing condition. Elderly men and immunosuppressed individuals were found to be the most vulnerable.
Neutralizing antibodies correlate with protection. However, the neutralization assay is time consuming and complex. In this study, scientists found a strong correlation between anti-S IgG and neutralizing antibody levels, a time-dependent relationship. They also observed that antibody levels were higher in women and decreased with age. Among immunosuppressed individuals, antibody responses with a one-fifth lower neutralizing antibody titer were significantly lower than in healthier participants.
Researchers observed that obese people had significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers during long-term follow-up. Previous studies have shown that obesity correlates with severe COVID-19. Future studies need to investigate whether vaccinated obese people are at increased risk of breakthrough infections and the kinetics of their antibodies.
Scientists also emphasize the excellent durability of the humoral response of people who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Such individuals showed a slight decrease in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels 8-10 months after infection. This may be the reason why the number of breakthrough infections in previously infected people is significantly lower than in those who have been vaccinated. Overall, existing evidence indicates that long-term humoral response and vaccine efficacy are higher in individuals who have previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2 than in vaccine recipients.
One limitation of current research may be underrepresentation of the population. The health care workers who participated in the study were primarily healthy individuals. However, for this purpose, scientists have considered a subgroup of older people or people in coexistence. The future is still quite uncertain, and as the pandemic continues to evolve, it will be important to determine the immune correlation of post-vaccination defenses. The data provided in the current study provide important insights into the dynamics of the immune response to BNT162b2 vaccination. Further research is needed to develop new strategies for extending host immunity to protect the world’s population from SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.
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