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Breast Cancer Awareness Month 2021

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October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month.according to American Cancer SocietyBreast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women following skin cancer. In fact, women in the United States have a 12% (1/8 chance) risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. In addition, 1 in 38 people can die of breast cancer. Therefore, raising awareness is very important. Regular screening helps detect precancerous and cancerous breast tissue that may otherwise be present in healthy individuals. With proper diagnosis and treatment at an early stage, breast cancer can become one of the most treatable forms of cancer.

Main types of breast cancer

Tube cancer: This is the most common type of breast cancer and begins inside the ducts (the thin ducts that carry milk from the lobule of the breast to the nipple). Ductal carcinoma in situ can be either ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, ductal carcinoma in situ) or ductal carcinoma in situ (IDC).

Lobular carcinoma: The cancer begins in the lobular (mammary gland) of the breast and can be either in-situ lobular carcinoma (LCIS, non-invasive) or invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). LCIS ​​is rarely invasive, but having LCIS in one breast increases the risk of developing invasive cancer in one breast.

Inflammatory breast cancer: A type of breast cancer that causes the breast to become red and swollen and feel warm. Cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin, causing redness and warmth.

Triple-negative breast cancer: It describes breast cancer cells that do not have an estrogen receptor, a progesterone receptor, or a large number of HER2 / neu proteins. Also called ER-negative PR-negative HER2 / neu-negative breast cancer.

Recurrent Breast Cancer: Breast cancer can come back if treatment does not completely remove or destroy all cancer cells.

Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms

The most common signs of breast cancer are:

  • Chest and armpit lumps (armpits)

  • Swelling or thickening of all or part of the breast

  • Dullness or irritation of breast skin

  • Local and persistent breast pain

  • Redness, scaly, thickening of the skin of the nipples and breasts

  • Nipple contraction or drainage (other than breast milk)

  • Changes in breast size and shape

It is important to remember that breast lumps are common, especially in premenopausal women. There are many types of lumps, most of which are not cancerous tumors. Most of the lumps turn out to be benign. For example, a soft, liquid-filled lump feels soft (especially before a period), a rubbery lump that moves around under the skin and is usually painless, or a fibrotic change that causes pain, lumpy. chest. Benign lumps result from adipose tissue deposits or breastfeeding when a milk-filled sac forms a cyst. Lumps can also occur as a result of an injury, such as when the breast is injured or after breast surgery. All women should learn about these signs and have a monthly breast self-examination with regular mammograms. This, along with knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer, helps keep women away from the disease.

What is the risk of breast cancer?

Being a woman is a major risk factor for breast cancer, as breast cancer is most common in women over the age of 55. Multiple uncontrollable factors increase the risk of developing breast cancer, including race and ethnicity, individual / family history, breast cancer, and menstrual history. In addition, changes in certain breast cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) increase the risk of developing breast cancer.

Another category is lifestyle-related risk factors such as contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone therapy, childbirth, alcohol intake, extra weight, and sedentary tendencies.

It is important to remember that having one or more risk factors does not mean that a woman will develop breast cancer. Although it is important to be familiar with all risk factors, especially those that can be controlled by your lifestyle to reduce your risk of breast cancer. Physical activity of at least 150 minutes at moderate intensity or 75 minutes (or a combination of these) at intense intensity activity is recommended. In addition, ACS advises women to drink only one drink a day to reduce their risk of breast cancer. ACS also recommends regular breast cancer screening for all women over the age of 40.

Breast cancer screening

Breast cancer screening guidelines American College of Radiology And that Breast Imaging Society.. This includes a risk assessment of a 30-year-old woman to see if screening before the age of 40 is needed. Women previously diagnosed with breast cancer may benefit from supplemental screening with magnetic resonance imaging, especially if they are diagnosed with cancer before the age of 50. Three tests are usually used to detect breast cancer.

  • A mammogram is an x-ray of the breast used to detect and evaluate changes in the breast. Its ability to detect depends on the size of the tumor and the density of the breast tissue. Three-dimensional (3D) mammography is a type of digital mammography that uses an X-ray device to take thin slices of the breast from different angles and uses computer software to create the image.

  • Breast ultrasonography is often used with mammography for women at high risk of not being able to undergo an MRI or for women with dense breast tissue.

  • Breast MRI is used to screen high-risk individuals and collect detailed information about suspicious areas found on mammograms or ultrasound.

according to American Breast Cancer Foundation, Health care providers can treat breast cancer in a variety of ways. Treatment for each individual depends on the stage of the breast cancer and the plans recommended by the doctor. The various types of treatment available include sentinel lymph node biopsy, radiation therapy (including external beam radiation therapy and proximity radiation therapy, which is internal radiation therapy), chemotherapy, targeted drug therapy, and breast-conserving surgery (partial breast). Also called resection or partial mastectomy). Breast mass removal).

Related reading

Starvation: Can Diet Methionine Fight Cancer? Scientists draw a link between this essential amino acid and cancer lipid metabolism.

New genetic function in breast cancer: A study in Janice Nepper’s lab at Villanova University focused on the function of a protein called Zc3h8. Her team, consisting primarily of undergraduate students, discovered that proteins could contribute to the aggressive tumor behavior of breast cancer models.

Starvation of triple-negative breast cancer slows growth. In a study by the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers show that in addition to glutamine, a well-known food source for cancer, TNBC cells can grow and survive using fatty acids.

Targeting double-sided nuclear receptors to fight cancer: For small molecule cancer treatments, the situation is everything. Drugs that improve cancer in some tissues may increase the risk of cancer in other tissues. Researcher Stephen Safe turned this challenge into an opportunity.

Disappointment — due to cancer: In this personal essay, biochemist Jennifer Dubois responds to her diagnosis and treatment with expert disappointment.

Science prepared me for cancer treatment, but nothing was prepared to survive. Jennifer Gooch got a pink diploma when she finished her treatment, but she isn’t the same woman she was when she started.

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