With the COVID-19 booster shots available in some of the US population, emerging groups may wonder if they really need it-people with “hybrid immunity.”
These are people who have been fully vaccinated but have also recovered from cases of COVID-19. It is clear that there is a lot of evidence. Matching the virus provides additional immunity and makes booster shots useful, but not essential, experts say.
“I would call myself a victor,” said Paul Offit, MD, director of the Vaccine Education Center at Philadelphia Children’s Hospital, if you have hybrid immunity. “Call it victory and bow.”
September, CDC Announcing the provisional recommendations for the Pfizer Vaccine Booster.This is the third shot Now available Through an emergency use authorization from the FDA given at the same dose as the two-shot primary series. All adults aged 65 and over are eligible for boosters, as are individuals aged 18-64 years who are at high risk of severe COVID, and individuals aged 18-64 who are at high risk of exposure to work. This is due to evidence that the effectiveness of the vaccine decreases over time and the risk of infection increases.
Preprint research, Israeli national study Pfizer vaccine recipients have found that after 6 months of vaccination, immunity is weakened in all age groups. Data from the ZOECOVID studyA similar effect was found with apps that collect data from a huge number of people, but have not been peer-reviewed.
But ofit is September 17th meetingThe FDA’s advisory board has shown that for most people, a double dose of Pfizer or Moderna, or a single dose of Johnson & Johnson, is very effective in itself. Indeed, immunologist and professor Alessandro Sette, who runs a laboratory at the Lahora Institute of Immunology in California, said, “In some cases … No one needs it. ” booster. “
Hybrid immunity and evidence
According to experts, there is evidence that people who were naturally infected in addition to the two injections had a “third” injection, or an amount of infection equivalent to a booster. In other words, they don’t need an extra boost.
NS This week’s study Nature Blood samples from 40 health care workers vaccinated with one of the Moderna Pfizers were examined before and after vaccination. The study found that people who had previously been naturally infected with COVID had a higher T-cell response and higher neutralizing capacity for various strains of COVID than those who did not catch the virus. I did.
Dr. Sempei, who studies the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases at Columbia University Mailman, said: Faculty of Public Health in New York City.
Other studies have reached similar conclusions. From one Nature In June Sixty-three people spontaneously infected with SARS-CoV-2 were found to have a stronger antibody response to the virus in blood tests after mRNA vaccination than unvaccinated uninfected persons.
Moreover, this “hybrid immunity” seems to be particularly powerful.According to the outlook treatise Chemistry This summer, two types of immunity from both “real-world” infections and vaccinations come together to be greater than just one.And, as the preprint paper suggested, it has hybrid immunity Provides protection against different variants Compared to an uninfected vaccine.
In this paper, we used the analogy of grown trees with other trees to create a third, much stronger tree. In this case, Memory B cells and CD4 + T cells drive up to 25-100 times higher neutralizing antibody levels than with infection or vaccination alone.
However, according to experts, it is important to remember that immunity from spontaneous infection with COVID-19 is less protective than vaccination.As CDC study of hundreds of COVID cases in Kentucky In conclusion, those who naturally received COVID and were not vaccinated were 2.34 times more likely to be re-infected than those who were vaccinated.
COVID after vaccination
In rare cases of breakthrough infections, it is unclear whether the same hybrid immunity will occur (although Ofit has a problem with the term “breakthrough”. These cases are mostly asymptomatic or mild but fail. He says it means). Of the 185 million people vaccinated in the United States, less than 0.01% had breakthrough cases leading to hospitalization or death.
“Breakthrough infections should not be considered to be associated with hybrid immunity,” Sette warned, and those who developed “breakthrough” cases may have had a weak immune response to the vaccine in the first place. He added that there is. Booster questions.
“We don’t have any real good data about breakthrough infections yet,” he said.
Conclusion: Boosters provide additional protection for everyone, but that protection may only really make sense for people over the age of 65 and other vulnerable people.
“Scientific evidence shows that getting a booster raises antibody levels again, giving you better protection,” says Pey. “It’s scientific evidence. Whether you want to take it [the booster] Whether it depends on your tolerance for risks and benefits, “he added. People worried about the side effects of the vaccine may hesitate to take a third dose, he added.
Other hesitations for getting boosters include vaccine inequity around the world, with or without hybrid immunity. “Is it fair to give people in developed countries additional doses when there are places where people have not even been vaccinated once?” Sette asked. “In that respect … it’s a less simple question.”
Mr. Pei said that “vaccine nationalism” is a problem and has the idea that “we want to protect the people of our country first, not you.” But, “This conversation, we cannot participate as individuals. If I do not take this vaccine, I cannot make the decision to go elsewhere.”
Boosters are not a major concern for Ofit. “The problem in this country is not to give a third dose to someone who has already taken it twice, if you really want to get over this pandemic,” Ofit said. “”[It’s about giving] The first two doses to those who have nothing. That’s the problem-immunize unvaccinated people. “
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