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Delta Variant: Covid’s Delta, How the Kappa Variant Avoids the Immune System

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A team of US scientists Kappa Variants COVID The virus helps the mutant to evade recognition by the antibody.

Scientists at the University of Washington School of Medicine obtained plasma samples from 37 individuals aged 22 to 66 years who received two doses of Moderna or Pfizer / BioNtech or one dose of Janssen Covid-19 vaccine.

Their data are Delta, Kappa, and Delta Plus The mutant reduced the virus neutralizing potency from the vaccine-induced antibody.

The DeltaPlus variant caused the largest reduction. Antibodies from half of the individuals vaccinated with Janssen completely lost the ability to neutralize one or more variants in laboratory assays.

Kappa and Deltaplus variants were able to better avoid vaccine-induced antibody neutralization, which is Delta variant It has become globally dominant.

Vaccine developers have focused primarily on targeting spike glycoproteins on the surface of the Covid virus. Spike glycoproteins include an N-terminal domain that strengthens cell binding and a receptor binding domain that binds to ACE2 receptors on host cells.

Most antibodies against the pandemic coronavirus latch at specific sites in these two domains. As a result, the coronavirus variants mutated their N-terminal and receptor-binding domains to evade these antibodies, as in the case of the delta and kappa variants, the team said.

“These are the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies in convalescent and vaccinated individuals, and thus concerns about the efficacy of available vaccine and therapeutic antibodies against these (kappa and delta) variants. Will occur, “the researchers wrote in a paper published in the journal Science.

A closer look at the structure of the major infectious structures of the variant coronavirus reveals that one antibody, called S2X303, has the skill to cross-react with several variants compared to all other neutralizing antibodies. Was there.

By investigating how this antibody binds to the N-terminal domain, scientists have gained a clearer picture of how it attacks its target. This antibody takes an aberrant angle approach to create its own contact footprint within the N-terminal domain.

The discovery of a broadly neutralizing coronavirus antibody also informs the idea of ​​a new Covid-19 vaccine, making it a next-generation vaccine candidate with the potential to generate broad immunity against salvecovirus. It also helps to work on it.

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