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How Does the mRNA Vaccine Work?Research facts and general myths

How Does the mRNA Vaccine Work?Research facts and general myths
How Does the mRNA Vaccine Work?Research facts and general myths

 


Vaccines help protect us from a variety of infectious diseases. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we all heard a lot about a type of vaccine called the mRNA vaccine, which stands for messenger ribonucleic acid.

RNA vaccines may look very new, but researchers have been working on them for a long time.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at mRNA vaccines, how they work, and their safety and efficacy.

yours Immune system Protects you from external threats such as pathogens called Pathogen.. Immune cells, like pathogens, are activated when they recognize something in the body as a foreign substance.

Your immune system is antigen.. Antigens are often proteins that are located outside of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.

When activated, different parts of the immune system work together to generate an immune response against antigens such as antibodies and killer T cells.

Your immune system also has a memory. In other words, even if you encounter the antigen again in the future, you can remember the reaction to the antigen.

vaccination Take advantage of the memory power of your immune system. They work by introducing a non-infectious part of the pathogen into your body, so your body can recognize the intruder and learn to kill it before it causes the disease.

However, unlike actual infections, vaccines do not make you sick.

Vaccines weaken or inactivate the pathogen to prevent it from causing the disease. Sometimes only some of the pathogens are used, such as a single protein.

When vaccinated, the immune system provokes a reaction to the antigens contained in the vaccine. That way, your body already has the tools to better protect you if you encounter a real pathogen in the future.

MRNA vaccines introduce the immune system into antigens in a unique way. Instead of using weakened or inactivated forms of pathogens, they work by teaching the cells of your body how to temporarily produce antigens.

This is done using mRNA, a type of nucleic acid that tells the body how to make proteins. Your own cells use mRNA daily to make proteins that are essential for your body to function properly.

At the time of publication, the only mRNA vaccine currently in use is Pfizer-BioNTech When modern COVID19 vaccine.

The immune response to the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines after a single dose was not very high.For this reason, both vaccines are at least 2 doses To be effective.

In early large clinical trials, after two doses, Pfizer-BioNTech When modern Vaccine 95 percent When 94.1%Each.

Since then, more research has been done on the effectiveness of these vaccines.

A 2021 study The analysis of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine contained data from more than 3 million people from December 2020 to August 2021. The data after two vaccinations are as follows, compared to those who have not been vaccinated.

  • 73% effective in protecting against illness
  • 90% effective in protecting from hospitalization
  • Six months after the second dose, efficacy against COVID-19 diminished, but remained high for hospitalization.

A 2022 study We compared 352,878 people who received the Moderna vaccine twice in June 2021 with the same number of people who had not been vaccinated.

Compared to unvaccinated people, researchers have found that the vaccines are:

  • 87.4% effective in protecting against illness
  • 95.8% effect on hospitalization protection
  • 97.9% effect on COVID-19-related death protection

mRNA vaccines, boosters, and omicrons

The recommendation for booster From the emergence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and highly contagious Omicron variant This has led to further discoveries regarding the effectiveness of mRNA vaccines.

Overall, the two vaccines appear to be less effective against Omicron. However, research has shown that getting a booster can increase the level of protection against Omicron variants.

A 2022 study In particular, we investigated the efficacy of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine against the Omicron variant. Researchers have discovered it:

  • The efficacy of the double dose vaccine against Omicron infection was 44% 14-90 days after the second dose.
  • The efficacy of the triple-dose vaccine against Omicron infection was 71.6% 14-60 days after booster immunization, but decreased to 47.4% 60 days later.
  • Although the effect of preventing infection by Omicron was reduced, three doses of Modena vaccine were more than 99% effective against hospitalization by Omicron.

A 2021 study, Currently in preprint, similar results were obtained for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. This study found the following:

  • The efficacy of the double dose vaccine was 88% 2-9 weeks after the second dose.
  • However, this protection dropped to 34-37 percent after 15 weeks.
  • After booster administration, vaccine efficacy increased to 75.5%. Researchers have not determined how long the protection from boosters will last.

Clinical trials Pfizer-BioNTech When modern Both vaccines Overall safe.. When serious side effects occurred, they occurred in equal proportions between those who received the vaccine and those who received the placebo injection.

A 2021 study We analyzed more than 11.8 million mRNA vaccine doses between December 2020 and June 2021 and paid particular attention to the 23 serious consequences.

  • AnaphylaxisSerious allergic reactions that can occur after vaccination
  • Myocarditis When PericarditisTwo types of heart inflammation reported with the mRNA vaccine
  • Bell’s palsyTemporary facial paralysis, more commonly, but still rarely observed, in vaccine groups in clinical trials of mRNA vaccines

Researchers have discovered it:

  • Overall, none of the 23 results occurred at a level that met the criteria of the study to indicate concern.
  • The estimated rate of anaphylaxis in this study was similar to that reported in other studies.
  • An increased risk of myocarditis or pericarditis was observed in young people, especially men.
  • No evidence was found to associate Bell’s palsy with the mRNA vaccine.

Although mRNA vaccines may look new, researchers have actually been studying them for a long time.In fact, the first delivery of mRNA to the cells to make the protein took place 1978..

Since then, researchers have advanced mRNA vaccine technology. They improved RNA synthesis and the layer of fat that delivers it to cells.

Examples of other mRNA vaccines being studied include:

When the COVID-19 pandemic began, researchers used this existing series of studies to develop the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Other factors that have helped to produce these vaccines very quickly include:

  • Additional funding from both public and private sources
  • Accelerating clinical trial timeline
  • High-level collaboration within the scientific community around the world

Despite its rapid development, the safety and efficacy of these vaccines Clinical trials.. Accelerating the timeline did not mean cutting corners when it came to test standards and scientific integrity.

You may have heard many different things about the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Some of these may be true, others are not.

Let’s take a moment to uncover some of the common myths about these vaccines.

Myth: Innate immunity is better than vaccines

It is still unclear how long the innate immunity to the coronavirus will last.Overall, getting vaccinated Safer way To build immunity COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) May lead to:

Vaccination is still important even if you are already infected with COVID-19.

In fact, new research The vaccinated person When COVID-19 has high levels of neutralizing antibodies.This is called Super immunity..

Myth: Vaccine ingredients are dangerous

In addition to mRNA, these vaccines also contain fat, sugar and salt. If you need more information, the CDC has a list of each ingredient. Pfizer-BioNTech When modern Vaccines and their effects.

If you have a history of allergic reactions to any of the ingredients in the mRNA vaccine, it is advisable to consult your doctor before vaccination.

mRNA vaccine do not It contains the following ingredients:

  • Tissues from humans or other animals
  • Preservative
  • Antibiotics
  • latex
  • metal

Myth: COVID-19 vaccine can give you COVID-19

The COVID-19 mRNA vaccine does not contain the entire virus. They contain only a portion of the mRNA that tells the cells how to make the spike protein. Therefore, you will not get sick with COVID-19.

After receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, you may feel a little sick. This is perfectly normal and is a sign that your body is building an immune response. Side effects usually go away within a day or two.

Myth: Vaccinated people can drop the vaccine

Vaccine excretion It occurs when a vaccinated person releases the vaccine component into the environment. This can only occur with vaccines that contain an attenuated, live form of the virus.

RNA vaccines do not contain the entire virus in any way. Therefore, they cannot be shed.

Myth: RNA vaccines change your DNA

yours DNA It is contained in the nucleus of each cell. MRNA from the vaccine does not enter the cell’s nucleus. Therefore, the DNA cannot be modified or affected.

In addition, vaccine mRNA stays in the cell for only a short time. It is destroyed after the cell uses it to make a peaplomer.

The mRNA vaccine tells cells how to temporarily make proteins from the pathogens that cause the disease. The immune system can then recognize this protein and generate an immune response to it to protect you from future illnesses.

At the time of publication, the only mRNA vaccine used is for COVID-19. They are made by the pharmaceutical companies Pfizer, BioNTech and Moderna.

Large clinical trials and subsequent studies have shown that both vaccines are safe and effective against the COVID-19-causing coronavirus.

MRNA vaccine technology has a lot of potential for the future. Based on previous research and what is known from COVID-19 vaccine development, researchers can move on to the development of mRNA vaccines for other pathogens.

Sources

1/ https://Google.com/

2/ https://www.healthline.com/health/how-does-mrna-vaccine-work

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