Researchers load oncolytic viruses into CAR T cells to treat solid cancer tumors-ScienceDaily
Researchers at the Mayo Clinic Personalized Medical Center have devised an immunotherapy technique that combines chimeric antigen receptor-T cell therapy or CAR-T cell therapy with a cancer-killing virus to more effectively target solid tumors. And treated.
Combined approach published in Scientific translation medicine, It involves loading oncolytic viruses into CAR-T cells designed to look for antigens on cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses are naturally occurring viruses that can infect and break down cancer cells. They can either replicate well in cancer cells naturally or be designed to selectively target cancer cells.
This study suggests that CAR-T cells can deliver oncolytic viruses to tumors. The virus then infiltrates the tumor cells, replicates and destroys the cells, stimulating a strong immune response.
“This approach allows tumors to be killed not only by CAR-T cells but also by viruses,” explains Dr. Richard Bill, co-leader of the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center’s genetic and viral treatment program. “Furthermore, when the virus is delivered, the tumor turns into a highly inflammatory environment, which the patient’s own immune system sees and launches an attack.”
Treatment strategies address two major challenges that make it difficult to treat solid tumors with CAR-T cell therapy alone. First, oncolytic viruses can destroy the molecular shields used by some solid tumors to evade immune system attacks. Second, the virus can invade the core of cancer cells. It is a feat that is almost impossible with immune cells alone, and it is often the case that attempts are made to lose power.
Researchers have also found that the combined approach provides an immunological memory phenotype for tumors.
“By placing the virus on CAR-T, it activates the virus against both the virus and the tumor and acquires immunological memory,” says Dr. Vile. “This allows the virus to be boosted at a later point. This will wake up the CAR-T cells again and give an additional round to kill the tumor.”
Dr. Vile and his team used a mouse model to administer intravenous doses to treat skin melanoma as well as high-grade glioma in children and adults. They found that combination therapy resulted in a high cure rate for tumors at multiple sites without causing significant toxicity. They also found that it provided clear protection for cured mice against tumor recurrence.
“Clinically, systemic treatment is a potential benefit because it may be possible to treat patients with metastatic disease without injecting each tumor,” explains Dr. Vile.
Next, Dr. Vile emphasizes that it is important to note how well studies in animal models of cancer translate into patient care.
“Nevertheless, we expect to be able to incorporate this strategy into clinical trials within a year or two,” said Dr. Vile. “By conducting such trials at the Mayo Clinic, we can see if CAR-T cell therapy can be even more effective in treating different types of solid tumors.”
This work goes to the Eagles Cancer Research Fund Brothers Order, Fellowship Program, European Research Council, Richard M. Schultz Family Foundation, Mayo Clinic Center for Personalized Medicine, Mayo Clinic Ventures, NIH (R01CA175386, R01CA108961, P50 RG Vile) CA210964), grants from Terry and Judith Paul, and research grants from Oncolytics Biotech Inc. The salaries of A.Huff and C.Driscoll were partially supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, T32AI132165.
material Provided by Mayo Clinic.. Original written by Susan Murphy. Note: Content can be edited in style and length.
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