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The United States provides vaccines to certain people exposed to monkeypox. This is what you need to know w

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CNN
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As health leaders around the world are investigating abnormal outbreaks of monkeypox in more than 12 countries, discussions in the United States are directed to vaccination against the disease and vaccine to specific people exposed to the virus. May be provided.

Monkeypox vaccines are now available to some healthcare professionals treating infected individuals.

“Even in the first case at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, I’m happy to report that government-wide colleagues were able to vaccinate the hospital. And just yesterday, they were already exposed to medical care. We have begun to provide vaccines to our workers, “Dr. Raj Panjabi, who heads the White House’s monkey-poor reaction, told CNN’s Laura Coates on Monday night.

“The first part is to identify infected people, isolate them, and give them the care they need,” Punjabi said. “The second part is to ensure that people exposed to infected individuals are vaccinated. If we repeat it many times, and that is our approach across the White House and the government. If so, we are more likely to end this outbreak. ”

Biden’s senior official said on Tuesday that a small group of people exposed to symptomatic monkeypox patients could be vaccinated, but this is not a mass vaccination effort.

In the United States Jynneos vaccineWhen administered twice at 4-week intervals, Authorization to prevent smallpox and monkeypox As an adult.

“Since the monkeypox virus is closely associated with the virus that causes smallpox, the smallpox vaccine can help people prevent monkeypox,” said the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. “Smallpox and monkeypox vaccines are effective in protecting people from monkeypox if given before exposure to monkeypox. Experts also vaccination after exposure to monkeypox. Believes that it helps prevent illness and reduce its severity. ”

Scientists have long known that smallpox vaccines are also effective in preventing monkeypox. Smallpox virus and monkeypox virus, which cause smallpox, belong to the same family.

Dr. Ameshua Dalha, a senior scholar at Johns Hopkins, said: Health Security Center.

But don’t expect a large-scale deployment of the vaccine.

“I think we need to use vaccination for case contact. It’s not like everyone is vaccinated side by side,” Adalja said of the current outbreak. “It will be important to stop the case.”

Government officials said Tuesday that there were enough vaccines to cover the current case level in the United States.

“Currently, there are more than 1,000 doses. [Jynneos] Dr. Jennifer McKistton, Deputy Director of the Department of High-Results Pathogens and Pathology within the CDC’s National Emerging Center, said zoonoses on Monday.

CDC has at least a vaccine 85% effective in preventing monkeypoxBased on data from Africa.

Another vaccine, called ACAM2000, is approved in the United States to prevent smallpox. Vaccines can be used to prevent monkeypox, but they are not licensed for that purpose.

According to McKistton, more than 100 million ACAM2000 doses have been administered in the United States.

“ACAM2000 is an older generation smallpox vaccine with some potential serious side effects,” she said. “So the decision to use it widely will have to have a serious discussion behind it.”

ACAM2000 is a live virus vaccine. When a shot is given, a lesion develops at that site. According to the CDC, the virus propagates at the site of the lesion and can spread to other parts of the body and to others. Therefore, those who have obtained ACAM2000 “need to take precautions” to prevent it from spreading.

In comparison, the Jynneos vaccine is given as a live, non-replicating virus. According to the CDC, this means that there is no visible “take” and, as a result, there is no risk of the virus spreading.Some common Vaccine side effects Includes injection site pain, muscle aches, headaches or malaise.

Most people are not vaccinated against monkeypox. It is based on direct exposure.

The CDC Advisory Board and Immunization Practices Voted Last Year Vaccination is recommended for certain groups at risk due to the occupation of monkeypox and other related viruses. This could include, for example, laboratory staff or healthcare professionals treating infected individuals.

In the midst of a pandemic, World Health Organization officials plan to make recommendations on who should be prioritized for smallpox vaccination to reduce the risk of monkeypox.

“We make recommendations on who should prioritize this,” said Maria Van Kerkhove, WHO’s leader in emerging and zoonotic diseases and Covid-19’s technical leader. , Social media Q & A Monday.

“This isn’t what everyone needs. It’s a virus that’s spreading among people who are in close contact with the people in the case,” Wankelhoff said. “We really need to discuss these means, access, and evidence-based use of impartiality.”

Andy Seale, WHO’s Strategic Advisor for the Global HIV, Hepatitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program, added that vaccination should be considered in West and Central African countries where monkeypox is endemic.

“The community has already told us,” If we do this right, if we contain it, if we get access for outbreaks, we also do this for endemic countries. You have to do it, “said Seal.

Vaccination after exposure to monkeypox virus can still provide some protection, According to the CDC..

“That’s the standard. We usually don’t vaccinate everyone in advance. We use vaccination for post-exposure prophylaxis,” says Adalja.

“Monkeypox has a long incubation period like smallpox, so on average, monkeypox takes about 12 days. Vaccination of exposed people will stop the infection,” he said. .. “Or, if infected, it can be transmitted very late or late in the incubation period, which reduces the severity of the infection.”

However, the sooner the exposed person is vaccinated, the better. The CDC recommends vaccination within 4 days of exposure to prevent illness. If given between 4 and 14 days after exposure, vaccination may relieve symptoms, but it cannot prevent the disease itself.

Overall, people who have been exposed to the monkeypox virus and have not been vaccinated within the last three years should consider vaccination, according to the CDC.

Adults vaccinated against smallpox as a child probably have “wreckage” of protection against monkeypox, Adalja said, but that may not be complete protection.

“The smallpox vaccination program ended in the United States in the 1970s. Obviously, if someone is in the U.S. military and was vaccinated last year, I’m sure they’re fully protected.” Adalja said. “But people vaccinated as children when smallpox was a routine childhood vaccination may still have some immunity.”

Biden administration officials have theoretically provided some protection from previous smallpox vaccinations on Tuesday, but there is not enough evidence of how much protection will be provided and protection can decline over time. He said he had sex.

According to people familiar with the matter, nothing has changed about the biology of the monkeypox virus, and for the general public, the chances of getting the monkeypox virus are still very low.

WHO personnel have not found evidence that the monkeypox virus has changed or mutated in this outbreak. Therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that licensed vaccines do not work against currently prevalent viruses.

“This is a very stable virus, so there is still no evidence that the virus itself is mutated,” Rosamund Pike, Executive Director of the WHO Emergency Program for Smallpox, said in a Q & A session on Monday.

“We are starting to collect that information,” Lewis added. “We will convene a group of virologists and other experts to discuss this very question based on the genomic sequences of some of the cases that have been detected.”

This is an important “important question” to answer, said Dr. Daniel Rhodes, Co-Chair of the American Committee on Pathologists and Microbiology.

“Is something changed by biology, or is this an unusual situation that has never happened before, or is it a situation we have never recognized before?” At the Cleveland Clinic, Ohio. Pathologist Rhoads said:

“Every time I see a new or new way of getting an infection, I’m always wondering. Is this something that wasn’t previously recognized? Or is it real biology? Is it a change and a mutation in the virus? I don’t know, “Rhodes said.

“My guess is that if they sequence the virus that is causing the current outbreak, they will be able to compare it to a known sequence, and insights into whether this is like the same old monkeypox. I hope you get it. If anything looks different. ”

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