Connect with us

Health

How to develop an “all mutant” COVID vaccine

Published

on

 


In a recent study published in Nature immunologyThe researchers summarized the observations of a humoral immune response induced in people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).In addition, they discussed all types of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine inducibility. Neutralizing antibody (NAbs). They also shared their views on nAb-inducing next-generation vaccine designs that broadly protect against multiple SARS-CoV-2 mutants (VOCs).

Review: Humoral response and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection.. Image credit: NIAID

Background

Humoral or antibody-mediated immune responses are an important component of adaptive immunity against viral infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This happens in two phases:

i) Extrafollicular (EF) phase, and

ii) Germinal center (GC) phase.

In the former EF phase, B cells that encounter the virus rapidly differentiate into plasma cells that produce nAb, which neutralizes SARS-CoV-2. These short-lived EF plasma cells have predominantly IgM isotypes, but can be switched with IgA or IgG. The latter GC phase takes weeks to begin, but usually lasts months. It produces antigen-specific (here SARS-CoV-2) B cells and, through affinity-based selection and somatic hypermutation, forms plasma cells with high affinity that remain localized in the bone marrow. In particular, both the EF and GC antibody responses produce memory B cells that remain present after removal of the primary infection.

Antibody types and antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection

SARS-CoV-2 infection stimulates the production of immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and IgA antibodies. They are at detectable levels in the patient’s serum within 1 week after onset of symptoms (PSO), including those that bind to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. In particular, these antibodies are of EF origin. The nAb titer for SARS-CoV-2 peaks at 3-4 weeks of PSO and then decays. However, IgG may be stable for several months compared to IgM and IgA antibodies.

The mucosal antibody, secretory IgA, is produced in the respiratory tract and plays an important role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection through the respiratory tract. It persists in the nasal fluid during several months of PSO and contributes to the development of resistance to reinfection.

Genome-level homology between other humans coronavirus (HCoVs) and SARS-CoV-2 are low but immunologically related. Cross-reactive memory B cells generated during a previous CoV infection may initiate a rapid EF antibody response, especially IgG and IgA, following a primary SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulatory cross-reactive T cells in people who have not previously been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 also shape the clinical outcome of COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2 infection increases circulation Autoantibodies Targets autoantigens, including cytokines, and chemokines such as interferon. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes autoimmune diseases (such as Guillain-Barré syndrome) with several antibodies.

The EF response causes nAb, which alone cannot control SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, to prevent reinfection, the host relies on persistent nAb, memory B cells, and long-lived plasma cells with increased affinity maturation. All of these require a lively primary GC response. Unfortunately, it is difficult to directly assess a person’s GC response, except during autopsy of the deceased. In some cases, severe COVID-19 causes severe lymphocytopenia and is most likely to nullify the GC response. Also, a sustained GC response is the best correlation for a good prophylactic vaccine strategy.

Future outlook for COVID-19 vaccine

Most current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines target the prototype SARS-CoV-2 strain. However, with the emergence of antigenic escape VOCs such as Omicron, the world needs a widely neutralizing COVID-19 vaccine. Heterologous vaccine modality may help improve the neutralizing efficacy and breadth of COVID-19 boosters. However, future studies should also focus on the characteristics of B cells activated by booster immunity, epitope specificity, and the mechanism of action of booster-immunized antibodies.

Next-generation COVID-19 vaccines have the potential to target new VOC S-glycoproteins, similar to how influenza vaccines are renewed annually. However, it is also worth noting that the antibodies with the highest neutralizing power tend to have a limited width with respect to the spectrum of the mutant. The problem in designing a universal COVID-19 vaccine is to balance the efficacy and breadth of vaccination-induced nAb. Finally, researchers can consider approaches that combine multiple antigens from different VOCs into a single vaccine. For example, nanoparticle vaccines can use separate mosaic RBDs from different hCoV strains.

COVID-19 has become the most thoroughly studied viral disease in human history. An unprecedented global effort to understand how a host initiates an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 may help identify immunological correlations between infection and vaccine protection. I have. In addition, this facilitates the development of treatments for severe COVID-19.

Sources

1/ https://Google.com/

2/ https://www.news-medical.net/news/20220630/How-to-develop-an-all-variant-COVID-vaccine.aspx

The mention sources can contact us to remove/changing this article

What Are The Main Benefits Of Comparing Car Insurance Quotes Online

LOS ANGELES, CA / ACCESSWIRE / June 24, 2020, / Compare-autoinsurance.Org has launched a new blog post that presents the main benefits of comparing multiple car insurance quotes. For more info and free online quotes, please visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/the-advantages-of-comparing-prices-with-car-insurance-quotes-online/ The modern society has numerous technological advantages. One important advantage is the speed at which information is sent and received. With the help of the internet, the shopping habits of many persons have drastically changed. The car insurance industry hasn't remained untouched by these changes. On the internet, drivers can compare insurance prices and find out which sellers have the best offers. View photos The advantages of comparing online car insurance quotes are the following: Online quotes can be obtained from anywhere and at any time. Unlike physical insurance agencies, websites don't have a specific schedule and they are available at any time. Drivers that have busy working schedules, can compare quotes from anywhere and at any time, even at midnight. Multiple choices. Almost all insurance providers, no matter if they are well-known brands or just local insurers, have an online presence. Online quotes will allow policyholders the chance to discover multiple insurance companies and check their prices. Drivers are no longer required to get quotes from just a few known insurance companies. Also, local and regional insurers can provide lower insurance rates for the same services. Accurate insurance estimates. Online quotes can only be accurate if the customers provide accurate and real info about their car models and driving history. Lying about past driving incidents can make the price estimates to be lower, but when dealing with an insurance company lying to them is useless. Usually, insurance companies will do research about a potential customer before granting him coverage. Online quotes can be sorted easily. Although drivers are recommended to not choose a policy just based on its price, drivers can easily sort quotes by insurance price. Using brokerage websites will allow drivers to get quotes from multiple insurers, thus making the comparison faster and easier. For additional info, money-saving tips, and free car insurance quotes, visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ Compare-autoinsurance.Org is an online provider of life, home, health, and auto insurance quotes. This website is unique because it does not simply stick to one kind of insurance provider, but brings the clients the best deals from many different online insurance carriers. In this way, clients have access to offers from multiple carriers all in one place: this website. On this site, customers have access to quotes for insurance plans from various agencies, such as local or nationwide agencies, brand names insurance companies, etc. "Online quotes can easily help drivers obtain better car insurance deals. All they have to do is to complete an online form with accurate and real info, then compare prices", said Russell Rabichev, Marketing Director of Internet Marketing Company. CONTACT: Company Name: Internet Marketing CompanyPerson for contact Name: Gurgu CPhone Number: (818) 359-3898Email: [email protected]: https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ SOURCE: Compare-autoinsurance.Org View source version on accesswire.Com:https://www.Accesswire.Com/595055/What-Are-The-Main-Benefits-Of-Comparing-Car-Insurance-Quotes-Online View photos

ExBUlletin

to request, modification Contact us at Here or [email protected]