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How contagious is monkeypox? And do I need to be vaccinated? This is the latest.

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In a world where the coronavirus pandemic has lasted for more than two years, another disease, monkeypox, continues to spread more rapidly than ever before. It is a very different virus from the one that causes COVID-19 and is much more difficult to spread, but it can also land patients in hospitals and even kill them. Monkeypox can also leave an infected person injured. Lesions filled with pus that peck the skin can leave permanent scars everywhere, thousands to thousands.

So far, 61 Country Recorded 7,492 on 6 continents CaseSince, new infections have increased by 82% June 27..Monkeypox was defeated in the United States 34 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Currently, there are 700 cases and most of the illnesses are relatively mild, but three deaths have been confirmed in Africa. The disease is predominantly prevalent in certain networks, men who have sex with men.

However “A significant number of cases may not have been covered.“Tedros Adhanom Gebreyes, Director of the World Health Organization, said. Beyond limited testing, some patients show a relatively small number of lesions, further complicating the number of cases.

The infection has entered an unknown territory, with cases of monkeypox among people who have never traveled to Africa, where the virus is endemic, and infections in new locations. “Especially here in Europe, there is no room for self-satisfaction, as the outbreaks are fast every hour, day and week and have expanded to previously unaffected areas.” Hans Henri P. Kruge, WHO Director General of Europe said in a statement.

The WHO Emergency Committee will review whether the outbreak constitutes a global public health emergency in the week of July 18.Fierce response effort.. “

This current multilateral outbreak was “surprise,” but “not surprising,” says Rosamund Lewis, WHO’s technical leader in monkeypox. Cases have been increasing in Africa for decades.Ongoing outbreak in Nigeria started in 2017 (And may be the origin of this current spread) And another of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) counted about 6,000 suspicious cases in 2020.

The COVID-19 case diminishes the monkeypox case, but experts say Humans can infect wildlife in the United States and other countriesInadvertently creating a new endemic reservoir for the disease, says Andrea McCollum, an epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2022 Monkeypox outbreak response effort. Animals can then re-infect people with the virus, making it much more difficult or impossible to eradicate.

Global efforts are currently underway to prevent the spread of monkeypox cases and avoid other cases. Pandemic.. To that end, public health authorities provide vaccinations to people at risk.Biden administration Increase vaccine delivery There is strict demand.

Here’s what you need to know about viruses, risks, prevention, and whether monkeypox vaccination is needed:

What is monkeypox?

Monkeypox is a less severe and less contagious cousin of smallpox.Both Orthopoxvirus, a genus of 12 DNA viruses This includes cowpox and camelpox.

Bernard Moss, a virologist at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), explains that there are two different gene clade or varieties. One is monkeypox in the Congo Basin, which kills 1 in 10 infected people. The current global outbreak has been identified as the second non-fatal West African monkeypox with a mortality rate of less than 1%.

This is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted to humans by animals. First discovered in monkeys in a Danish laboratory in 1958, the name of this virus may or may not be incorrect. Small mammals are thought to carry the virus Although endemic in African rainforests, it can infect many mammals and has only been isolated twice in wildlife. With Roperis of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1985 Manga Bay In 2012 at Côte d’Ivoire. The actual illness repository remains unknown..

Most infections have occurred in West Africa and Central Africa since the first known human case in 1970 (when an infant boy was diagnosed with DRC). Most of the early days, according to Lewis, were “spillover events” that resulted from the hunting and slaughter of infected wildlife.

Close contact can spread the virus among people. The lesion is a contagious “small virus factory,” says McCallum of the CDC. But until recently, the virus rarely spread beyond a small number of households in the community.

The disease was characterized at least 52 years ago, but “we don’t really know as much as we want,” says Lewis.

Is it a sexually transmitted disease?

In the United Kingdom, one of the first cases infected mothers, fathers, and their babies, but the current outbreak of monkeypox has had an overwhelming impact on men who have sex with men. 99% of cases reported gender. It was difficult for public health authorities to educate the general public without stigmatizing the community.

Highly likely to occur Amplified by sexual behavior in Spanish and Belgian raveDavid Heymann, a longtime WHO infectious disease expert, told The Associated Press. These events have brought about an international spread, like the large rally that spread COVID-19 in the early days of the pandemic.

However, evidence suggests that monkeypox is not a sexually transmitted disease, Moss says. If someone is symptomatic, it can spread from skin to skin (including sexual behavior) and can also be transmitted by contact with bed sheets, towels, or clothing.

Previous outbreaks in Africa have infected women, children, and men of all ages. “There is no guardrail. The virus does not necessarily stay in one gender or one population,” warns Henri Moan, an epidemiologist of infectious diseases and a professor of public health at the University of California, Los Angeles. It’s already happening. According to Lewis, WHO has begun to look at cases of children.

She calls this an evolving situation that must be carefully monitored. “I think you need to open your eyes wide and be ready to react.”

Public education is the key. “We don’t want people to worry, but consciousness is what you need to protect yourself,” Lewis adds. “We need each person to know and manage their own risks.”

Are tests and vaccines readily available in the United States?

For monkeypox, there are existing tests that only wipe the lesion. The test is then sent to a laboratory in the state to check for orthopox and to the CDC to check for monkeypox. Patients are being treated preemptively because of the positive Orthopox results.

Despite the existing United States Laboratory response network In infectious disease testing, supporters are complaining about the backlog and delay of testing and results. Currently, demand is concentrated in urban areas. To date, California, New York, Illinois, and Florida have been the most affected. According to the CDC.. To make the test more accessible The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) ships orthopox virus tests to five commercial laboratories...

It was difficult to get a vaccine, but it is changing. After the first US case was recorded on May 18, the numbers surged and the monkeypox vaccine was rapidly depleted. June 28, Biden administration publication Distribute an additional dose of 56,000, giving priority to the area with the highest transmission. An additional 240,000 doses will be distributed in the coming weeks, with a total of 1.6 million available by late fall.

Brinsidefovir, an antiviral drug developed for smallpox, is approved for the treatment of monkeypox.

Do I need to get a monkeypox vaccine? Who are the priorities for vaccination?

“Vaccination of the general population is not guaranteed,” says Moss of NIAID. Currently, the virus is spreading only within small demographics.

But in this mushroom hunting outbreak, contact tracing is no longer possible. Several countries, including the United States, needed to pivot with plans to expand vaccination from only known contacts to include high-risk individuals.

“Vaccination is best done before someone gets infected,” Moss says. The target period after exposure is 4 days, but vaccination is available up to 2 weeks later.

What is the difference between the two monkeypox vaccines? And when were they developed?

Edward Jenner, believed to be the founder of western vaccinia, successfully inoculated a 13-year-old boy against smallpox in 1796 using the vaccinia virus from cowpox. Two years later, researchers developed the first smallpox vaccine. “Vaccines made against any of them are defensive against all of them,” says Moss, because the orthopoxvirus shares more than 90% of the genetics.

Unlike the situation at the dawn of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, the good news is that there is an effective vaccine against monkeypox, Lewis says. Two are available in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration approved ACAM 2000 in 2007 to prevent smallpox. It resembles an early vaccine with a live mild vaccinia virus and has been used by the military, laboratory workers, and other groups for decades. People vaccinated against smallpox before the United States ended the program Some immunity should remain in 1972..

Current smallpox vaccines have never been tested in Phase III clinical trials for either smallpox or monkeypox. Medical experts believe that the smallpox vaccine is effective against monkeypox, but “this has not yet been demonstrated in rigorous research,” Lewis says.

Specific group This should be avoided Live vaccine. It also includes pregnant people as it can endanger the fetus. People with immunodeficiency and those with skin conditions also need to be clearly maneuvered. The virus can spread uncontrolled. This vaccine is also dangerous for people with heart problems because it can cause inflammation of the heart.

The second vaccine, Jynneos, has far fewer side effects and is the only vaccine specifically approved for monkeypox.

However, with recognition and proper attention, “[Vaccination is] It’s the key to curbing this and putting it under control, “says McCollum.

Was this international outbreak unexpected?

Experts did not predict that monkeypox would “pass through closely related social networks and move across the number of borders we are seeing today,” McCollum says. ..

But there were signs of warning.

In Africa, cases of monkeypox began to increase after the outbreak of smallpox. Eradicated worldwide in 1980 And the vaccination campaign is over: those vaccines are cross-protected against all orthoviruses.As leftovers Immune weakened, Monkeypox infections surged and increased 20-fold between 1986 and 2007. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The first outbreak in the Western Hemisphere occurred in 2003, when exotic pets were shipped.Rats, dormouses and squirrels in Gambian bags— Sparks from West Africa 47 infectious diseases in the United States

Then, in 2018, authorities aggregated an increasing number of travel-related incidents. “It raised our eyebrows,” says McCollum. “We were quite concerned that it was just the tip of the iceberg.”

The underlying environmental conditions were ripe for this to happen, Lewis says. She cites factors that increase the risk of zoonotic diseases from wildlife to people. Climate change and deforestation that provide access to forests, the need for protein, and the sale of bushmeat on the market.

“We all share one planet,” she says. And we need research to help protect humanity and nature. “Unless we have both of these goals in mind, we will continue to get into trouble.”

Sources

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