Scientists in the United States and Germany recently compared the immune kinetics of mRNA-based vaccines with other types of vaccines, including DNA, protein and adenoviral vector-based vaccines.
Research published in journals vaccinationexplained that mRNA vaccines induce antigen-specific antibody responses within a very short period after immunization.
Newer mRNA vaccines work by introducing small fragments of mRNA sequences specific to viral antigens into the body, which are then translated to produce viral antigens and induce virus-specific immune responses. These vaccines can be rapidly developed and produced, making them good candidates for controlling infectious disease outbreaks, including the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, two mRNA vaccines were developed by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. In both clinical trials and real-world conditions, these vaccines have shown high protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19.
In the current study, scientists compared the immune dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteinExpression of mRNA and DNA vaccines in mice. Furthermore, they compared the immune kinetics of mRNA, DNA, protein, and adenoviral vector vaccines developed against the envelope proteins of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).
The immune kinetics of mRNA- and DNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were determined by immunizing mice intradermally or intramuscularly.Both vaccines contain the SARS-CoV-2 full-length pre-fusion stabilized spike protein as a vaccine antigen.
Similarly, the immune kinetics of HIV-1 vaccines were determined by immunizing mice with different types of vaccines (mRNA, DNA, protein, and adenoviral vector vaccines) expressing the same envelope proteins of HIV-1. rice field.
Antibody response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine
Estimation of spike-specific binding antibody responses revealed detectable serum titers 5 days after intradermal and intramuscular immunizations. However, antibody responses were relatively high after intradermal immunization. In contrast to mRNA vaccines, DNA vaccines failed to induce detectable antibody titers at this early time point.
Mice immunized with the DNA vaccine showed detectable antibody titers on day 14. However, the responses were lower than those induced by the mRNA vaccine. At this time point, the mRNA vaccine induced a dose-dependent antibody response regardless of the route of administration.
Antibody titers induced by mRNA and DNA vaccines became comparable 21 days after immunization.
Regarding neutralizing antibody responses, the findings revealed that both intradermal and intramuscular mRNA vaccination induced a detectable antispike Neutralizing antibody 5 days after immunization. Similar to binding antibody responses, the intradermal route of vaccination showed greater efficacy in inducing neutralizing antibody responses.
At 7 days post-immunization, the neutralizing antibody responses induced by the mRNA vaccine remained significantly higher than those induced by the DNA vaccine. Both antibody responses were comparable on day 21.
Innate immune response to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine
Innate immune responses to both mRNA and DNA COVID-19 vaccines were determined by measuring plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines at 5 and 24 hours after immunization.
Consequently, compared to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines induce significantly higher levels of cytokines involved in B cell proliferation and differentiation and antibody production, such as interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-6. It became clear.
Similarly, mRNA vaccines showed greater efficacy than DNA vaccines in inducing plasma levels of certain chemokines essential for antigen-presenting cell activation and maturation, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-ɑ (MIP-1ɑ), MIP-1β, and interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10).
Antibody response to mRNA HIV-1 vaccine
To obtain a generalized overview of the immunokinetics of mRNA vaccines, this study analyzed the immunogenicity of an mRNA HIV-1 vaccine and compared it with other types of anti-HIV vaccines.
Similar to the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, the mRNA HIV-1 vaccine elicited strong antibody responses 5 days after intramuscular immunization. In contrast, other tested HIV-1 vaccines failed to induce detectable antibody titers at this time point.
Overall, antibody titers induced by DNA, protein, and adenoviral vector-based HIV-1 vaccines became comparable to those induced by mRNA vaccines only on day 21 post-immunization .
Significance of research
This study demonstrates that mRNA vaccines developed against SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 infections outperform other leading vaccine technologies in inducing rapid antibody responses against specific viral antigens. indicates that there is Detectable binding and neutralizing antibody responses can be seen as early as 5 days after mRNA vaccination.
Given these observations, scientists believe that mRNA-based vaccines may be more effective in controlling infectious disease outbreaks, and further studies are needed to determine the generalizability of these observations. It suggests that research is needed.
The mention sources can contact us to remove/changing this article
What Are The Main Benefits Of Comparing Car Insurance Quotes Online
LOS ANGELES, CA / ACCESSWIRE / June 24, 2020, / Compare-autoinsurance.Org has launched a new blog post that presents the main benefits of comparing multiple car insurance quotes. For more info and free online quotes, please visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/the-advantages-of-comparing-prices-with-car-insurance-quotes-online/ The modern society has numerous technological advantages. One important advantage is the speed at which information is sent and received. With the help of the internet, the shopping habits of many persons have drastically changed. The car insurance industry hasn't remained untouched by these changes. On the internet, drivers can compare insurance prices and find out which sellers have the best offers. View photos The advantages of comparing online car insurance quotes are the following: Online quotes can be obtained from anywhere and at any time. Unlike physical insurance agencies, websites don't have a specific schedule and they are available at any time. Drivers that have busy working schedules, can compare quotes from anywhere and at any time, even at midnight. Multiple choices. Almost all insurance providers, no matter if they are well-known brands or just local insurers, have an online presence. Online quotes will allow policyholders the chance to discover multiple insurance companies and check their prices. Drivers are no longer required to get quotes from just a few known insurance companies. Also, local and regional insurers can provide lower insurance rates for the same services. Accurate insurance estimates. Online quotes can only be accurate if the customers provide accurate and real info about their car models and driving history. Lying about past driving incidents can make the price estimates to be lower, but when dealing with an insurance company lying to them is useless. Usually, insurance companies will do research about a potential customer before granting him coverage. Online quotes can be sorted easily. Although drivers are recommended to not choose a policy just based on its price, drivers can easily sort quotes by insurance price. Using brokerage websites will allow drivers to get quotes from multiple insurers, thus making the comparison faster and easier. For additional info, money-saving tips, and free car insurance quotes, visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ Compare-autoinsurance.Org is an online provider of life, home, health, and auto insurance quotes. This website is unique because it does not simply stick to one kind of insurance provider, but brings the clients the best deals from many different online insurance carriers. In this way, clients have access to offers from multiple carriers all in one place: this website. On this site, customers have access to quotes for insurance plans from various agencies, such as local or nationwide agencies, brand names insurance companies, etc. "Online quotes can easily help drivers obtain better car insurance deals. All they have to do is to complete an online form with accurate and real info, then compare prices", said Russell Rabichev, Marketing Director of Internet Marketing Company. CONTACT: Company Name: Internet Marketing CompanyPerson for contact Name: Gurgu CPhone Number: (818) 359-3898Email: [email protected]: https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ SOURCE: Compare-autoinsurance.Org View source version on accesswire.Com:https://www.Accesswire.Com/595055/What-Are-The-Main-Benefits-Of-Comparing-Car-Insurance-Quotes-Online View photos
to request, modification Contact us at Here or [email protected]
- Endorse Ganjar? Jokowi promotes a white-haired leader in front of his supporters
- Slam, deafening silence, whispers of Bollywood support on Richa Chadha
- US FCC bans sales and imports of Chinese technology from Huawei and ZTE
- A minor earthquake occurred off the coast of Vancouver Island, near Tofino – BC News
- Videos show huge protests in China as Xi Jinping comes under pressure
- Japan plans to use enemy base strike capability with US
- LIVE updates | IND VS NZ, 2nd ODI Cricket Match Live Score: Can Shikhar Dhawan’s Team India Bounce Back? | Cricket news
- Fact check: Google hasn’t suspended Play Store in Pakistan, but users can’t use mobile balance to pay for apps
- Imran Khan will address the first gathering since he was shot
- 14 years of 26/11: PM Modi pays tribute to the victims of the terrorist attacks | India News
- Kim Kardashian talks to North West about the dress she wore the night she was conceived
- Janelle Monae is not dazzled by working with Hollywood megastars | Entertainment