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covid vaccine: Easy-to-use, more effective and cheaper nasal Covid vaccine could be a game changer: scientists

 


Keeping promises to prevent mild infections and stop infections, mucous membrane A vaccine is likely to be a game-changer in the Covid pandemic as Indians gear up for the world’s first intranasal prophylaxis, scientists say.

An intranasal, non-invasive and inexpensive alternative to injectable vaccines could be just what the world needs to combat Covid waves of decline and spread with new variants posing challenges at every step. Experts said there is.

Earlier this month, Bharat Biotech announced that iNCOVACC (BBV154), the world’s first intranasal COVID-19 vaccine, received approval from the Indian Medicines Regulatory Authority for restricted use in emergencies over the age of 18. Did. A vaccine is not yet commercially available.

Researchers believe that mucosal vaccines can prevent even mild illness and block transmission to others by boosting the immune response where the virus first enters the body. This is not possible with her current COVID-19 vaccination.

Professor David T. Curiel of the University of Washington said, “This pandemic is protracted. It continues to emerge with new variants that can cause many infections and transmissions among already vaccinated people. It is because

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“a nasal vaccine It may be what you need to finally break the cycle of infection,” Curiel said in a statement.

Immunologist Vineeta Bal agreed, explaining that intranasal vaccines are thought to produce antibodies locally, in the upper respiratory tract, the point of entry for SARS-CoV2.

Because of their presence, viruses are thought to be “neutralized” immediately after entry without gaining a foothold by entering and multiplying inside cells.

“This means the virus can be cleared early from the body before it can spread to the lungs and other organs, a potential and advantage over other intramuscular injection vaccines,” says Indian Science Education, Pune. Research Institute (IISER) Bal said.

“Because the infection is ‘budded’, there is less viral replication in the host,” she explained.

India is not the only country to have approved a mucosal COVID-19 vaccine. So did China. However, the Chinese mucosal vaccine is inhaled through the nose and mouth, whereas the Indian intranasal coronavirus vaccine is administered as nasal drops.

Bharat Biotech says its BBV154 vaccine has been proven safe and has generated an immune response in clinical trials involving about 4,000 volunteers.

Mucosal vaccines target the thin membranes that line the nose, mouth, and lungs. They are administered via drops, sprays, or swallowed capsules by contacting the lining of the body’s barrier organs.

BBV154 is made from adenovirus, a family relative of the common cold virus that expresses the spike protein found in SARS-CoV-2, which the virus uses to enter and infect cells.

“Intranasal vaccines have two advantages over intramuscular (or subcutaneous) vaccines,” said Satyajit Rath, also an immunologist at IISER.

“One thing that is clear is that it is easier to administer because you don’t have to inject it. It is thought to provide excellent immediate local protection in the throat, large lung airways,” Lars told PTI.

He explained that there is some evidence for this benefit of mucosal vaccines, mainly from polio vaccines, but it is not yet clear whether this will hold up in actual use in people.

Bal added that the ease of use of the intranasal vaccine makes it easier to administer large doses.

“The oral polio vaccine is a great example of that. There may be less fear in people’s minds just because they avoid needle syringes,” Bal told PTI.

“However, how uniformly a predetermined dose of vaccine can be administered and whether the optimal dose of virus provokes an immune response are some of the variables to keep in mind,” she added.

Another advantage of nasal vaccines is the cost factor. The price of Bharat Biotech’s intranasal vaccine is not yet known, but it will be considerably cheaper than the injectable vaccine.

The nasal administration system was designed and developed to be cost effective. This is a particularly important feature in low- and middle-income countries, where vaccines can be stored in the refrigerator, scientists say.

According to researchers at the University of Washington, who developed the vaccine technology underlying BBV154, it takes only a short inhalation to get the vaccine.

Importantly, the design of the vaccine allows it to be updated relatively quickly and easily by simply switching the current spike protein to the new mutant spike protein when a new mutant emerges.

In a study published in July, researchers also noted that an intranasal vaccine for COVID-19 would be important for protecting people from the emerging strain of concern.

“Intranasal vaccines provide a mucosal antigen boost to pre-existing immune cells that direct the immune response, resulting in higher immunity,” they explained.

All that could change, Rath warns, with the potential emergence of yet another virus variant that can effectively evade the current immune response.

“There is no evidence yet to show that such mucosal vaccines have unique utility, especially against new SARS-CoV-2 variants,” he said.

However, if such a vaccine would reduce infection rather than reduce the severity of the disease, it would help keep viral transmission rates under control.

Four mucosal vaccines for COVID-19 have been approved globally so far, with one each in Iran and Russia, according to London-based health analytics firm Airfinity.

More than 100 mucosal vaccines against the disease are in development worldwide, and about 20 have reached human clinical trials, it said.

In principle, according to Bal, highly immunogenic nasal vaccines can significantly reduce the efficacy of infection.

“Our reluctance to use masks can be partially compensated by highly effective nasal vaccines. Based on the data…if this is really the case, nasal vaccines can also serve as boosters.” prize.

She said India’s nasal vaccine is now allowed as a primary vaccine, not as a booster.

“But globally, especially in many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), vaccination coverage is still very low, and this vaccine may find a place in those countries,” Bal said. added.

India recorded 4,369 new coronavirus infections, the lowest in more than three months, according to the federal health ministry on Tuesday. However, the threat of another variant always exists.

Sources

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