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Immunocompromised children at higher risk of dying from Covid-19: study

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Children with certain immunodeficiency disorders have mutations in genes that regulate the body’s immune system against viral infections. Covid-19 complications lead to high mortality.

Immunodeficiency results from impaired or absent elements of the body’s immune system, such as lymphocytes and phagocytic cells. These immunodeficiencies may be primary or secondary.

Research on this was carried out by researchers at the Karolinska Institutet. Published in Journal of Allergy and Clinical ImmunologyIt has been shown that most children infected with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus often exhibit mild illness or no symptoms.

However, a small percentage of immunocompromised children with abnormalities in the genes that regulate the body’s immune system viral infectionan increased risk of death.

“Mortality in children with primary immunodeficiency diseases infected with SARS-CoV-2 is much higher. Our results suggest that children with severe COVID-19 or multiple inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) It shows that basic immunological testing and genetic analysis should be performed so clinicians can help these children with more precise treatments based on their genetic alterations. Probably,” said Chan Pan Hammerström, professor of biological sciences and nutrition at the Karolinska Institutet, who led the study.

The study included 31 children and teenagers aged 5 months to 19 years. Each child had some form of primary immunodeficiency disease with no molecular diagnosis and suffered from severe or severe Covid-19. Participants were recruited in Iran from August to September 2020. None had been vaccinated against Covid-19.

one third of the participants, 11 children, died of complications from the infection. Five children (15%) had multiple inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Some of them lacked antibodies against coronavirus.

“This suggests that many children with this type of immune disease are unable to produce antiviral antibodies and therefore do not fully benefit from vaccination,” said the Karolinska Institutet in Biological Sciences and Nutrition. Hassan Abolhassani, assistant professor in the department and lead author of the study, said. .

According to genetic analysis, more than 90% of participants had 28 childrenhave mutations in genes that are important for the immune defense system and may explain the immune deficiency.

The study, funded by the Swedish Research Council and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, involved researchers identifying about 1,210 patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases and Covid-19, 30% of whom were children. A literature review that found reports was also included.

Although this study is limited to only severe cases of Covid-19 in which children were infected with the original strain of the virus and were not vaccinated, it highlights the importance of different virus variants and vaccines in this group. Further research is needed to evaluate.

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Sources

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2/ https://www.indiatoday.in/health/story/kids-with-immune-deficiency-at-higher-risk-of-dying-due-to-covid-19-study-2002019-2022-09-19

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