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Immunological memory cells are stored in the bone marrow as single

Immunological memory cells are stored in the bone marrow as single


How vaccines work Generation of immune cells Long-lived, often for decades. These immune cells provide a defensive barrier that can prevent or reduce reinfection and a memory that allows previous invaders, such as viruses, to be identified and eliminated before they cause disease. The importance of these ‘long-lived plasma cells’ has long been understood, but when and how they are produced following vaccination remained a mystery. are made by these cells.

A research team led by Dr. Marcus Robinson and Professor David Turlington of the Immunological Memory Institute at Monash University, published in the prestigious journal of scientific immunology, provides a real-time picture of how immune memory cells are preserved in the bone marrow. showed. weeks after vaccination. Researchers used the genetic system of mice to Gradual accumulation of these cells.

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This system, called time-stamping, allows researchers to permanently mark all plasma cells present at a particular time after vaccination, returning later to identify those that have survived and are thus long-lived. By doing this regularly after vaccination, researchers have uncovered the history of accumulation of these long-lived cells, identifying when they were made and where they went.

After being vaccinated we are almost left immunity This is because our bodies are constantly supplying antibodies against immune diseases – basically trying to keep these antibodies replenished.

We know where in the body these long-lived plasma cells are produced, such as the lymph nodes, tonsils, and intestines, but some vaccines keep these cells alive for decades and disappear after a few months. Given the global interest in long-term immunity provided by COVID vaccines, there is a growing urgency to understand this process.

Using a mouse model that expresses a fluorescent protein (called the TdTomato protein) only in cells that specifically produce antibodies to a particular vaccine.

Because these cells fluoresce, we were able to track when individual cells were generated and where they were stored.

In this study, we used a suite of tools to identify only vaccine-generated plasma cells. All plasma cells in the mouse model express a fluorescent protein (called the TdTomato protein), identify among them those that recognize the vaccine, and finally use the timestamp to tell when those cells were created. , so I knew how old they were.

According to Professor Turlington, studying how these individual cells are born, mature, and are stored to protect us from repeated invasions by specific viruses and bacteria is a “long-lived plasma cell.” It will allow us to develop a better understanding of how the mobilization of

The complexity of the study allowed researchers to determine other aspects of specific immune architecture.

How these plasma cells enter the bone marrow

Whether these plasma cells need to replace other cells when stored in areas such as the bone marrow

Or if these cells “find” a niche vacated by previous plasma cells, they die or move elsewhere

Mapping of these cells revealed that specific vaccination of mice generated approximately 40,000 persistent plasma cells in the bone marrow. These cells decline at a rate of approximately 0.1% per day after initial prosperity and have a half-life of approximately 700 days, providing an estimate of the duration of protection and keeping the long-lived cells themselves for further study. Identify

According to Professor Turlington, understanding how these long-lived plasma cells are generated, live and die “will give us an understanding of our ability to modulate their recruitment through various vaccine combinations and delivery strategies. Ultimately, we’ll be able to extend the lifespan of our immunity,” he said.

“Indeed, there is an exciting study recently reported in Nature that illustrates how altering vaccination mechanisms can have dramatic effects on the characteristics of the immune response, and we are excited about our research. We can predict the production of these special cells that were the focus.”

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