Higher blood caffeine levels appear to lower the risk of both obesity and type 2 diabetes, new research suggests.
The researchers describe caffeine as having a thermogenic effect, and have noted that previous short-term studies have linked caffeine consumption to reduced body weight and fat mass. Observational data has linked coffee consumption to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
To separate the effects of caffeine from those of other food and drink components, Dr. Susanna C. Larsson of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, and colleagues conducted studies primarily in European populations. Using data from , we examined two specific gene mutations. This is associated with a slower rate of caffeine metabolism.
Mutations in the two genes resulted in “genetically predicted higher lifetime plasma caffeine concentrations,” researchers said, “associated with lower body mass index and fat mass, and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.” It was,” the researchers point out.
About half of the effects of caffeine on type 2 diabetes were estimated to be mediated by lower body mass index (BMI).
the work is publish online March 14th BMJmedicine.
“This publication supports existing research that suggests a link between caffeine consumption and increased fat burning,” said Stephen Lawrence, MBChB, University of Warwick, UK. A big leap of confidence made is to assume that the weight loss brought about by increased caffeine consumption is sufficient to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
“But that doesn’t prove causation.”
The researchers agreed, stating:
Catalina Coss, M.D., Senior Lecturer in Diabetes and Obesity at the University of Exeter, UK, emphasized that the genetic study “shows the relevance and potential health benefits of people with specific genes.” [caffeine]…metabolism as a genetic trait and potentially better metabolism. ”
“It does not study or recommend drinking more coffee, which was not the purpose of this study,” she told the British Science Media Centre.
Genome-wide association study demonstrates association
Using Mendelian randomization, Larsson and colleagues examined data obtained from a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 9876 individuals of European descent from six population-based studies.
Genetically predicted higher plasma caffeine concentrations in persons with two gene variants are associated with lower BMI, with a 1 standard deviation increase in predicted plasma caffeine equivalent to approximately 4.8 kg/m Did2 by BMI (P. < .001).
For total body fat mass, a one standard deviation increase in plasma caffeine corresponds to a decrease of approximately 9.5 kg (P. < .001). However, there was no significant association with lean body mass (P. = .17).
Higher genetically predicted plasma caffeine concentrations were also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. FinnGen research (odds ratio, 0.77 for each standard deviation increase; P. < .001) and diamond group (0.84, P. < .001).
Together, the odds ratio for type 2 diabetes per standard deviation of plasma caffeine increase was 0.81 (P. < .001).
Larsson et al. calculated that approximately 43% of the protective effect of plasma caffeine on type 2 diabetes is mediated by BMI.
They found strong associations between genetically predicted plasma caffeine concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes studied (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke). did not.
The thermogenic response to caffeine has previously been quantified as an increase in energy expenditure of approximately 100 kcal per 100 mg of caffeine consumed per day and may lead to a reduced risk of obesity. Another possible mechanism is increased satiety, and higher caffeine levels suppress energy intake, researchers say.
“Long-term clinical studies investigating the effects of caffeine intake on fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk are needed,” they note. Randomized controlled trials are needed to assess whether it plays a role in reducing the risk of diabetes.”
This research was supported by the Swedish Research Council on Health, Work Life and Well-Being, the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, and the Swedish Research Council. Larsson, Lawrence, and Kos have not reported any related financial relationships.
BMJ Medicine. Published online on March 14, 2023. overview
Miriam E. Tucker is a freelance journalist based in Washington, DC. She is a regular contributor to her Medscape, and her other work appears in her The Washington Post, her Shots blog on NPR, and Diabetes Forecast magazine. She uses @MiriamETucker on her Twitter.