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Researchers suggest that nasal coronavirus vaccine is more effective than injected


Key Point

  • Intranasal vaccination can attack the virus, one of the important entrances to the human body-the mucous membrane overlying the upper respiratory system.
  • Nasal vaccination also causes mucosal protection at the site of infection
  • Intranasal vaccination may confer protection against mutant strains

Intranasal vaccination is rare. However, the benefits, especially for highly infectious diseases such as COVID-19, may be more effective than traditional intramuscular injection.

That’s because intranasal vaccination, given as an infusion or fine spray, can directly attack COVID-19, one of the key points where the virus enters the human body-the mucous membrane, or the mucosal system of the nose and upper respiratory tract. The mucous membrane is a membrane that covers various cavities of the human body and covers the surface of internal organs.

On the other hand, injecting the new COVID-19 vaccine into the mucosa-free upper arm may not be the most effective option.

Many doctors also make sense to develop a mucosal vaccine for the respiratory tract given the potency and rapid spread of the virus that causes COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) is the virus that causes COVID-19.

The main advantage For nasal vaccination, the nasal cavity is easily accessible. Nasal vaccination also elicits both mucosal protection at the site of infection and a systemic immune response, or antibody formation. On the other hand, intramuscular vaccination of the arm mainly induces a systemic immune response.

A successful nasal vaccine is FluMist Quadrivalent, a “live attenuated influenza vaccine” introduced in 2003. This nasal spray vaccine contains the attenuated influenza virus and has been shown to be more effective than influenza vaccination among young children.

“I know how strong a mucosal reaction is to a viral pathogen, so it’s ideal to think about a mucosal vaccine.” Dr. Akiko Iwasaki, An immunologist at Yale University.

Her observations were seconded by Dr. Avery August, an immunologist at Cornell University. “It’s less than ideal when it breaks down and presents pathogens in a way that the immune system can’t naturally see them,” Dr. August said. “You risk not producing the correct immune response.”

This is an established fact that the mucous membranes are very immune-competent. In the development of other viruses, even small amounts of antigen have been shown to elicit protective responses in the mucosa.

This is why some doctors argue that intranasal vaccination may provide protection against infections at other mucosal sites such as the lungs, intestines, and genital tract. Intranasal vaccination may also confer cross protection against mutant strains through mucosal antibody secretion.

In agreement with the efficacy of nasal vaccination, several research groups around the world are working on nasal coronavirus vaccines. Meanwhile, many companies, including Baxart, an American biotechnology company, are developing alternatives. This option is an oral formulation that delivers the drug to another mucosa, the cavernous mucosa of the intestine.

Two Leading Coronavirus Vaccine Project Leaders-University of Oxford, Alliance with AstraZeneca Institute, and Sinovac of China-To Conduct Clinical Trials in Brazil Two Leading Coronavirus Vaccine Project Leaders-University of Oxford, Alliance with AstraZeneca Institute, and Sinovac of China-To Conduct Clinical Trials in Brazil Photo: AFP / Douglas MAGNO


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