Nasal and sinus cancers occur when cancer cells form in the nasal passages or sinuses. These types of cancer are very rare.In fact, less than 5% of the total head and neck tumor It occurs in the nasal and sinus cavities.
in the meantime squamous cell carcinoma The most common are cancers of the nose and sinuses. There are many other types of cancer. Some of them are:
To learn more about nose and sinus cancer, we spoke with a head and neck surgeon. Dr. Ehab Hannah
What are the symptoms of nose and sinus cancer?
quick symptoms It often mimics more common symptoms such as sinusitis and allergies. As a result, these cancers are often misdiagnosed.
Early symptoms of nose cancer include:
- Nasal congestion
- impaired sense of smell
- facial pain and pressure
Hannah says there are two important things to consider when:
- symptoms are on the left or right side of the head or face,
- Symptoms are unresponsive to decongestants, nasal sprays, and antihistamines and last 2-3 weeks or longer.
“If all of these factors apply, you should visit an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) doctor for a proper examination,” he says.
Symptoms that may indicate more advanced cancer are:
- Sudden and/or recurrent severe nosebleeds
- Swelling or deformity around the cheeks, nose or eyes
- double vision
- blurry vision
- bulging eye on one side
- Unexplained loss of sense of smell
- Eye splits on one side (tears running down cheek)
- loose teeth
- roof of mouth or bulge of upper jaw
If any of these symptoms occur, people should see an otolaryngologist and have imaging tests and a biopsy if needed.
How is nose cancer usually diagnosed?
A complete head and neck examination is done, with the doctor paying particular attention to the nose, mouth, and eyes. Your doctor may do nasal endoscopy, a noninvasive procedure in which an endoscope is placed in your nose to examine your nasal passages.
If doctors suspect a tumor or lump in the nose, a CT scan or MRI is done to look at the internal structures. If imaging tests show that a mass is present, a biopsy is done and a pathologist will examine the tissue for cells to finally determine whether cancer is present.
Why is it so important to get an accurate diagnosis for nasal and sinus cancer?
get to the right one diagnose very important for choosing the right one process. However, because nasal and sinus cancers are so rare, the average pathologist sees only a handful of cases in a lifetime, increasing the risk of misdiagnosis. Our pathologists MD Anderson I’ve seen all kinds of nose and sinus cancer many times.
In a study of 400 patients with sinus cancer who had already been diagnosed and visited MD Anderson, 25% had an alternate diagnosis after MD Anderson pathologists examined biopsy slides. In certain cancers such as SNUC, he reached 67%.
The study also found higher cure and survival rates for patients whose diagnosis was not corrected.
“In other words, getting the diagnosis right the first time saves lives,” says Hannah.
What are the risk factors for nasal and sinus cancer?
People who are exposed to occupational hazards, such as those who work in the nickel and chromium mining industries, are at a much higher risk of developing sinus adenocarcinoma.some strains of Human papillomavirus (HPV) May be associated with sinus cancer. Tobacco smoking is more closely related to throat, lung and Oral It can increase your chances of developing not only cancer, but also sinus cancer. Some nasal and sinus cancers are caused by mutations in the genetic DNA structure of the cancer-causing people.
“‘Hereditary’ in this sense doesn’t mean inherited from your parents,” Hannah clarifies.
What are the treatments for nose and sinus cancer?
Hanna says the order of these treatments is important.
Some nasal and sinus cancers are treated primarily with surgery, followed by radiation therapy and sometimes chemotherapy. immunotherapyFor other cancers, treatment begins with chemotherapy to shrink the tumor.
An MD Anderson head and neck specialist will begin treatment with chemotherapy for some high-grade nasal and sinus cancers, including SNUC, advanced squamous cell carcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma, to see how the cancer responds. I’ve also found that it’s best to check if The care team can then determine the optimal next steps for treatment.
“For example, if a patient receives two doses of chemotherapy over five or six weeks and their tumor shrinks by more than 50%, we know that radiation is the best way to treat the tumor rather than surgery,” Hannah said. explain. “If the tumor shrinks by 10% or 15%, or not at all, it’s probably best treated with surgery instead of radiation, or radiation after surgery.”
Some patients can undergo minimally invasive surgery to shorten recovery time and reduce side effects.
“We are the first minimally invasive surgery It’s effective against these types of cancers,” he says. “Our hospital uses an endoscope, and there are no external incisions. This avoids facial incisions and deformities, allowing for faster recovery, shorter hospital stays, and fewer side effects. increase.”
The two structures closest to the sinuses that can be damaged during irradiation are the eyes and the brain. MD Anderson treats sinus cancer as follows: proton therapyThis makes it possible to target tumors more efficiently.
“The goal is to eradicate cancer and protect the eyes and brain,” Hannah says. “Proton therapy and minimally invasive surgery have revolutionized our ability to protect and preserve these precious structures.”
What new research is being conducted to advance the treatment of nasal and sinus cancer?
just finished clinical trial This study investigated a treatment approach of initiating chemotherapy to shrink tumors with the dual goals of organ sparing (eyes and brain) and subsequent optimization of treatment. An ongoing follow-up clinical trial is using a combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy to shrink tumors, rather than chemotherapy alone. We have the same goal of organ preservation and subsequent treatment optimization.
Request an appointment online with MD Anderson Or call 1-877-632-6789.
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