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Periodontal disease, esophageal cancer and gastric cancer risk


American researchers are finding their new findings on periodontal disease journal Intestine Titled “Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Prospective Study”.

Their study reveals that there may be a link between gum disease and the microbial environment of the mouth and cancer of the stomach and esophagus.

Previous research and the need for this research

Studies have shown that the oral flora/microbiota or oral microbial environment plays a role in causing gastric cancer. They also write studies that link specific microbes in the mouth to esophageal cancer. However, there are no clear and concise epidemiological data that can correlate changes in the oral microbial environment with these two cancers.

Harvard TH Chan, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Chun-Han Lo of the Department of Epidemiology of the Department of Public Health and Epidemiology and a team of researchers at Harvard Medical School have linked changes in the oral microbial environment with the association of these two cancers. They wrote that this altered microbial environment in the mouth could be due to periodontal disease or periodontal disease or tooth loss. These were indicators of “oral microbial abnormalities”. They explained.

What did this study do?

This was a positive study. This study included health information for 98,459 women who participated in a nurse health survey between 1992 and 2014, and 49,685 men who participated in a healthcare professional follow-up study between 1988 and 2016. Medical records were included. We recorded periodontal disease, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, and analyzed the association with the risk of esophageal cancer and gastric cancer.

Dental problems, lifestyles, other demographic parameters, and steps taken for diet were also recorded in the analysis. The cancer record was corroborated by the history obtained from the participants. Hazard ratio was one of the indicators to calculate the risk of these two cancers.

What did you find?

A total of 199 esophageal adenocarcinomas were found after thousands of participants were each followed for 22 to 28 years. 238 cases of gastric or gastric adenocarcinoma. Hazard ratios for esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma were found to be 1.43 and 1.52, respectively, after adjusting for other variables. The risks increased by 42 percent and 33 percent, respectively, the researchers wrote.

The latter increased the risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma when comparing people without tooth loss or periodontal disease with those with gum disease or tooth loss. For example, people who lost more than one tooth were at significantly increased risk. A person with a history of periodontal disease and no tooth loss or loss of one or more teeth is at a 59% higher risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma compared to a person without gingival disease and no tooth loss became. Individuals with no history of periodontal disease and no tooth loss or loss of one or more teeth had a 50% risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma, respectively, compared to those without gingival disease and no tooth loss. 68% higher.

Implications and future direction

The authors write that previous studies linking tooth loss and periodontal disease to these two cancers show inconsistent data. The study was robust in its findings due to the large number of participants and consideration of other lifestyle factors such as long-term follow-up and smoking during the analysis.

The team cited a study saying the following microbes: Tannerera forsythia And Porphyromonas gingivalis It is called part of the “red complex” that causes gum disease and is associated with esophageal cancer. Other microorganisms Peptostreptococcus stoma And Streptococcus anginosus, Associated with gastric cancer.

Porphyromonas gingivalis, 3D illustration.  Image credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

Porphyromonas gingivalis, 3D illustration. Image credit: Kateryna Kon / Shutterstock

Researchers explained that these microorganisms may form dangerous chemicals such as nitrosamines in the oral cavity. They wrote that these nitrosamines are known to cause gastric cancer. Some of the bacteria that cause periodontal disease can lead to T cell activation and “dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde”. It causes mutations that cause damage to DNA and excessive proliferation of epithelial cells. The team explained that this is related to esophageal cancer.

“These data together support the importance of the oral microbiome in esophageal and gastric cancer,” the team wrote. They called for further research to “directly assess the oral microbiome” and identify the exact bacteria that could cause cancer. They explained that these bacteria could be biomarkers and their presence could be used to assess the risk of these cancers.

This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Siteman Investment Program, the American Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, and others.


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