- In 2020, more than 495,000 adults worldwide were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
- More than 90% of people have common types of pancreatic cancer I have a KRAS mutation.
- researchers discovered Certain KRAS mutations in pancreatic cancer have been found to be associated with improved survival compared to other mutations in the disease.
- This finding adds to existing research targeting KRAS mutations to develop cancer vaccines.
Pancreatic cancer in the United States
According to previous research, traditional cancer treatments include:
Researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have found that patients with pancreatic cancer have a specific type of disease.
Dr. Dan Chaoa researcher in the Department of Gastroenterological Oncology, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and co-lead author of the study. Today's medical news:
“Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer death, but its treatment options remain limited. The 5-year overall survival rate for patients with metastatic disease is less than 5%. The incidence of pancreatic cancer is increasing. Effective treatments for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma are urgently needed.”
of pancreas It is located in the upper left part of the abdomen, behind the stomach.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma begins in the cells that line the ducts of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cancer is
Treatment for pancreatic cancer depends on the stage of the cancer. If the cancer has not spread to other areas of the body,
According to Dr. Zhao, the Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogene homologue (KRAS) gene was first isolated from cancer cell lines more than 30 years ago.
In a healthy environment, the KRAS gene plays an important role in cell growth and turnover. However, when the KRAS gene mutates, cancer cells can begin to grow and spread.
“The KRAS gene has the most mutations.
In addition to pancreatic cancer, previous studies have found KRAS mutations in:
For this study, Dr. Zhao and her team analyzed data from 803 people with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Researchers found that study participants had the following symptoms:
Additionally, scientists found that KRAS G12D mutations are correlated with metastatic disease and KRAS G12R mutations are common in well-to-moderately differentiated tumors.
“The results are not surprising,” Dr. Zhao said. “They are consistent with findings in other types of cancer and the biochemical characteristics of different KRAS mutation subtypes.”
“KRAS G12R is most prevalent in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (about 15%), but rare in other cancers (about 1%),” she continued.
“The KRAS G12R mutation is known to cause cancers to grow less easily in traditional mouse models. Laboratory studies have shown that the KRAS G12R mutant has a different downstream signaling pathway, and the KRAS Q61 mutant is more oncogenic. This study is one of the first and largest in patients with pancreatic cancer to elucidate the molecular and clinical characteristics of KRAS-mutant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.”
— Dr. Dan Zhao, study co-lead author
Dr. Zhao said KRAS was difficult to target until its recent discovery.
In addition to this study, Dr. Zhao is also the principal investigator on the following studies: clinical trial This could provide further information about the safety and efficacy of adaglasib monotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, she said.
“We hope that the results of this study will aid in the development of KRAS-targeted therapies and guide future combination therapy strategies targeting KRAS,” she added.
KRAS G12C inhibitors are currently undergoing research with potential. cancer vaccine.
For example, earlier this year, results from the following Phase 1 clinical trials were announced: ELI-002 This potential vaccine for colorectal and pancreatic cancer has shown that it may help prevent cancer recurrence in people who have already been treated for cancer.
“The current data is pancreatic cancer vaccine Phase 1 clinical trials are exciting,” said Dr. Zhao. “We look forward to seeing results in more patients soon in Phase 2 trials, especially in randomized controlled trials.”
MNT I also talked to AS Dr. Anton Bilchiksaid of the study, surgical oncologist, medical director, and director of the gastrointestinal-hepatobiliary program at Providence St. John's Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, California.
Dr. Bilchik said the study was critical because pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease, but little progress has been made in extending survival over the past 20 years.
“KRAS is a very important target for vaccines,” he continued. “I think one of the problems is that we don't know how long the effects will last because some people speculate that the effects of vaccine therapy may only last for a very short time.” There are many different subtypes, so we're trying to learn which specific subtypes are most important to target.”
“So there’s still a lot of work to do, but it’s definitely very exciting. immunotherapy or vaccine therapy has so far shown to be beneficial in pancreatic cancer,” Dr. Bilchik said.
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