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COVID-19: Why do some patients suffer from brain injuries?



As the world struggles to overcome COVID-19, new aspects of viral disease are rushing in. It is essentially a critical patient breathing problem. However, other than respiratory problems, other complications are known that include information about brain function. Although few, COVID-19-related brain complications suggest brain damage and are being studied by medical scientists and researchers.

Ah Investigation The University College London (UCL) reported that people suffering from COVID-19 may have neurological problems ranging from encephalopathy (brain damage), psychosis and delirium. During mental illness, people see and hear something that doesn’t exist. One of the earliest known cases reported in this study was a woman in her mid-50s seeing monkeys and lions at home. The patient had no history of psychosis. Delirium is a condition in which people are confused, upset, and confused. Chinese patients report He showed delirium and encephalopathy.

The correlation between behavioral symptoms and brain injury has not yet been fully studied. However, some early scientific reports point to brain damage. As early as April, a group from Japan report Swelling and inflammation of brain tissue. It was a case report of a patient who had seizures or convulsions. The report states that SARS-CoV-2 RNA (the virus that causes COVID-19) was found in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid-the fluid in the brain) and the spinal cord.

Another Italian study reported an incident that raised greater concern. Italian studies report A COVID-19 patient developed a deterioration of the myelin layer of neurons. Myelin is a protein that covers the area where neurons send signals to other neurons (called axons). The presence of a myelin sheet on the axon of a neuron accelerates the signal, and its degeneration slows down the signal process. Myelin sheets are irreversibly damaged in severe neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis.

Study published in the United Kingdom Lancet In June, we analyzed the clinical details of 153 patients with neurological complications due to COVID-19. Researchers found that 62% of patients interfered with blood supply to the brain (common in stroke) and bleeding, and 31% of patients caused changes in mental status such as confusion and unconsciousness. .. In particular, 10 patients developed psychosis.

The onset of neuropathy is obvious, but it is uncertain how common it is. Recent studies published in Lancet However, it sheds some light on the proportion of COVID-19 patients who are more likely to develop some or other neurological complications.

Researchers have come to a conclusion using data from other coronaviruses. In the case of SARS, 0.04% of people developed symptoms, indicating that the nervous system was affected. The same number was 0.2% of MERS. Given the COVID-19 numbers, it is estimated that the number of patients who may develop neurological complications can range from 10,000 to 50,000. It should be remembered that SARS and MERS cannot affect people of the size that COVID-19 has and there is a lack of data on both.

Is it a virus or the immune system?

Uncertainty about the methods that can cause neurological problems has kept scientists busy. Their two most important concerns are whether the brain damage is caused by the virus itself or by the hypersensitive immune system. Finding a definite answer is necessary to develop a clinical treatment.

America Investigation The virus carried out at the La Jolla Institute states that it may be present in neurons. Using human organoids (miniature and simple versions of in vitro-generated organs) and miniature groups of brain tissue, the researchers used the SARS-CoV-2 virus to kill some neurons and synapses (neurons). We have discovered that it can weaken the connection between them. The study was published on a preprint server.

another Investigation A study conducted at Yale University School of Medicine found similar results in studies conducted in human organoids, mouse brains, and postmortem cases.

After the death of 67 patients who died of COVID-19, the virus was shown to be present in CSF. Researchers detected it via an electron microscope Investigation Released in May. However, virus levels were low and consistent samples were not approaching.

However, some studies said that even with the help of RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction), the virus could not be detected in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid, and the brain damage in some patients was due to invasiveness. There is also some debate about the virus, or still angry because of the immune response.

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