Physicists in Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Berlin track the propagation of light within a molecule.
Physicists at the University of Goethe in Frankfurt took the lead in the global competition to measure shorter and shorter periods: with colleagues at the accelerator facility. DESY At the Fritz Haber Institute of Technology in Hamburg and Berlin, they first measured a process within the zeptosecond region, the propagation of light within a molecule. Zeptosecond is one billionth of a second (10)-twenty one Seconds).
In 1999, Egyptian chemist Ahmed Zewail was awarded the Nobel Prize for measuring the rate at which the shape of a molecule changes. He established femtosecond chemistry using an ultra-short laser flash. The formation and breaking of chemical bonds occurs in the femtosecond region.Femtoseconds are 0.000000000000001 seconds, or 10-15 Seconds.
Today, Atomic Physicists at Goethe University, Professor Rainhard Delner’s team, have for the first time studied a process smaller than femtoseconds. They measured the time it takes for a photon to pass through a hydrogen molecule. The average bond length of the molecule is about 247 zeptoseconds. This is the shortest period ever successfully measured.
Scientists timed the X-ray-irradiated hydrogen molecules (H2) from the Synchrotron light source PETRA III at the Hamburg Accelerator Center DESY. Researchers have set the energy of the X-rays so that one photon is sufficient to emit both electrons from the hydrogen molecule.
Electrons behave like particles and waves at the same time, so when the first electron is emitted, the electron wave is emitted to the first hydrogen molecule and then to the second hydrogen molecule. atom The waves merge and quickly and continuously.
The photons here act like flat pebbles skimming water twice. When the valley of the waves meets the top of the wave, the first and second waves of water contact cancel each other out, creating a so-called interference pattern.
Scientists used the COLTRIMS reaction microscope, a device supported by Dörner to visualize the ultrafast reaction processes of atoms and molecules, to measure the interference pattern of the first emitted electrons. At the same time as the interference pattern, the COLTRIMS reaction microscope also made it possible to determine the orientation of hydrogen molecules. Researchers here took advantage of the fact that the second electron also left the hydrogen molecule to detect the remaining hydrogen nuclei scattered.
“Since we knew the spatial orientation of the hydrogen molecule, we used the interference of the two electron waves to accurately calculate when the photon reached the first hydrogen atom and when it reached the second hydrogen atom. “Sven Grundmann, who is the basis of his dissertation, explains. Science articles on science. “And this is up to 247 zeptoseconds, depending on how far the two atoms are in the molecule in terms of light.”
Professor Reinhard Dörner adds: “For the first time, we have observed that the electron shell in a molecule does not react to light anywhere at the same time. Information in the molecule diffuses only at the speed of light, which causes a time delay. This discovery makes COLTRIMS technology another application. Expanded. “
Reference: Sven Grundmann, Daniel Trabert, Kilian Fehre, Nico Strenger, Andreas Pier, Leon Kaiser, Max Kircher, Miriam Weller, Sebastian Eckart, Lothar Ph. “Zepto Second Birth Time Delay in Molecular Photoionization” by H. Schmidt, Florian Trinter, Till, Jahnke, Markus S. Schöffler and Reinhard Dörner, October 16, 2020, Science.
DOI: 10.1126 / science.abb9318
What Are The Main Benefits Of Comparing Car Insurance Quotes Online
LOS ANGELES, CA / ACCESSWIRE / June 24, 2020, / Compare-autoinsurance.Org has launched a new blog post that presents the main benefits of comparing multiple car insurance quotes. For more info and free online quotes, please visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/the-advantages-of-comparing-prices-with-car-insurance-quotes-online/ The modern society has numerous technological advantages. One important advantage is the speed at which information is sent and received. With the help of the internet, the shopping habits of many persons have drastically changed. The car insurance industry hasn't remained untouched by these changes. On the internet, drivers can compare insurance prices and find out which sellers have the best offers. View photos The advantages of comparing online car insurance quotes are the following: Online quotes can be obtained from anywhere and at any time. Unlike physical insurance agencies, websites don't have a specific schedule and they are available at any time. Drivers that have busy working schedules, can compare quotes from anywhere and at any time, even at midnight. Multiple choices. Almost all insurance providers, no matter if they are well-known brands or just local insurers, have an online presence. Online quotes will allow policyholders the chance to discover multiple insurance companies and check their prices. Drivers are no longer required to get quotes from just a few known insurance companies. Also, local and regional insurers can provide lower insurance rates for the same services. Accurate insurance estimates. Online quotes can only be accurate if the customers provide accurate and real info about their car models and driving history. Lying about past driving incidents can make the price estimates to be lower, but when dealing with an insurance company lying to them is useless. Usually, insurance companies will do research about a potential customer before granting him coverage. Online quotes can be sorted easily. Although drivers are recommended to not choose a policy just based on its price, drivers can easily sort quotes by insurance price. Using brokerage websites will allow drivers to get quotes from multiple insurers, thus making the comparison faster and easier. For additional info, money-saving tips, and free car insurance quotes, visit https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ Compare-autoinsurance.Org is an online provider of life, home, health, and auto insurance quotes. This website is unique because it does not simply stick to one kind of insurance provider, but brings the clients the best deals from many different online insurance carriers. In this way, clients have access to offers from multiple carriers all in one place: this website. On this site, customers have access to quotes for insurance plans from various agencies, such as local or nationwide agencies, brand names insurance companies, etc. "Online quotes can easily help drivers obtain better car insurance deals. All they have to do is to complete an online form with accurate and real info, then compare prices", said Russell Rabichev, Marketing Director of Internet Marketing Company. CONTACT: Company Name: Internet Marketing CompanyPerson for contact Name: Gurgu CPhone Number: (818) 359-3898Email: [email protected]: https://compare-autoinsurance.Org/ SOURCE: Compare-autoinsurance.Org View source version on accesswire.Com:https://www.Accesswire.Com/595055/What-Are-The-Main-Benefits-Of-Comparing-Car-Insurance-Quotes-Online View photos
to request, modification Contact us at Here or [email protected]