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Antibodies rapidly decline in recovery of COVID-19 patients

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Due to the lack of approved and effective treatment for COVID-19, some hospitals treat patients with severe COVID symptoms with plasma from recovering patients. The blood of recovered patients contains antibodies that act against the coronavirus. Plasma has not yet shown any benefit in randomized trials, but some small retrospective studies suggest that plasma may reduce the severity of the disease and reduce hospital stays. ..

This week mBio, An open access journal of the American Society of Microbiology, researchers report: In Among COVID-19 patients, it decreases rapidly in the weeks after the body clears the virus and the symptoms subside.In the case of recovery period The authors conclude that the ultimate benefits have been shown to be clear and should be collected during a specific period after recovery. However, recovering patients cannot donate blood for at least 14 days after their symptoms have subsided, giving the body time to remove the viral particles.

“We don’t transfuse the virus, we just transfuse the antibody,” said Dr. Andrés Finzi of the University of Montreal, Canada. “But at the same time, our research shows that plasma’s ability to neutralize viral particles has diminished in the first few weeks.”

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein plays an important role in helping the virus grab and invade the host cell. Antibodies produced by the body’s immune system bind to parts of this protein, blocking the ability of this “key” to participate in the “lock” of the host’s cells and preventing viral particles from infecting the cell host. I will.

Previous studies have suggested that antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peak 2-3 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Findings from a previous cross-sectional study by Finzi’s group of more than 100 patients suggested that plasma’s ability to neutralize the virus was significantly reduced after 3 to 6 weeks. Onset.

In a new longitudinal study, Finzi and his colleagues analyzed blood samples collected at monthly intervals from 31 individuals who recovered from COVID-19. They measured the level of immunoglobulins acting on the coronavirus S protein and tested the ability of antibodies to neutralize the virus.

The researchers observed fluctuations in individual patient levels, but identified a consistent overall signal. Levels of immunoglobulins G, A, and M targeting the binding site decreased 6-10 weeks after the onset of symptoms. At the same time, the ability of antibodies to neutralize the virus also declined.

Finzi’s group continues to study blood samples from patients. How antibody levels change over time not only to optimize the use of plasma during the convalescent period, but also to understand the effectiveness of the vaccine and whether previously infected people are at risk of reinfection. He said it was important to understand what to do. “How many Can you protect you? Finzi asked.

Other Finzi studies focus on the immune response to human immunodeficiency , Or HIV. It is dramatically different from SARS-CoV-2.


COVID-19 antibody in donated plasma decreases within 1 month after onset of symptoms


Journal information:
mBio

Quote: Antibodies rapidly decline in recovery of COVID-19 patients (October 16, 2020), from October 16, 2020 https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-10-recovering-covid-patients Obtained from -antibodies-quickly.html.

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