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Indian-American Scientists Identify Covid-19 Treatment Potential

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New Delhi, November 21st (IANS) A team of immunologists from India in the United States have discovered potential strategies to prevent life-threatening inflammation, lung damage, and organ failure in Covid-19 patients.
After discovering that the Covid-19-related inflammatory immune response leads to tissue damage and multiple organ failure, scientists led by Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, vice chair of immunology at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. The drug identified mice by inducing the inflammatory cell death pathway.
In a paper published in the journal Cell, researchers elaborated on how inflammatory cell death signaling pathways worked and led to treatments that could disrupt the process.
“Understanding the pathways and mechanisms that cause this inflammation is important for developing effective treatment strategies,” said Kaneganti, who was born in Telangana and holds a bachelor’s degree from Kakatiya University in Warangal.
“This study provides that understanding. It also activates the inflammatory cell death pathway and has considerable potential for the treatment of other highly deadly diseases, including Covid-19 and sepsis. We have identified cytokines, “she said.
She worked with Besh Raj Sharma, Rajendra Karki and others in her lab to help researchers better understand the pathways and mechanisms that cause Covid-19 inflammation so that they can develop effective treatment strategies. I cooperated.
Infection is characterized by elevated blood levels of multiple cytokines. These small proteins are primarily secreted by immune cells and ensure a rapid response to limit the virus. Some cytokines also cause inflammation.
Kanneganti’s team focused on a selected set of the most elevated cytokines in Covid-19 patients.
Scientists have shown that a single cytokine did not induce cell death in innate immune cells.
Next, St. Jude researchers tried 28 cytokine combinations and worked together to find one duo that induced a form of inflammatory cell death previously described by Kanneganti as PANoptosis.
Researchers have shown that blocking individual cell death pathways is ineffective in stopping cell death caused by TNF-α and IFN-γ.
Since TNF-α and IFN-γ are produced between Covid-19 and cause inflammatory cell death, researchers are wondering if these cytokines are responsible for the clinical manifestations and fatal effects of the disease. I questioned.
They found that the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ caused tissue damage and inflammation, reflecting Covid-19 symptoms and rapid death.
Neutralizing antibodies to TNF-α and IFN-γ are currently used in the clinic to treat inflammatory diseases.
“The results of this study correlate TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced inflammatory cell death with Covid-19,” said Kanneganti, who earned her master’s degree. And PhD from Osmania University, India.
“The results show that treatments targeting this combination of cytokines are candidates for rapid clinical trials for the treatment of not only Covid-19 but also some other often fatal disorders associated with cytokine storms. It also suggests that. “
“I was excited to connect these points to understand how TNF-α and IFN-γ cause PANoptosis,” added co-lead author Karki.
“Certainly, understanding how PANoptosis contributes to disease and mortality is important for identifying treatments,” Sharma said.

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