A study published in the journal Cell reveals less than expected transmission of placenta-mediated protective SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from mothers infected in late pregnancy. The cause may be changes after the production of these antibodies. This is a process called glycosylation.
The results are based on the team’s recent findings presented at the JAMA Network Open, where pregnant women with Covid-19 do not pass the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but their antibody levels against it are also relatively low. ..
In this latest study, scientists compared maternal antibodies to influenza (influenza), whooping cough (whooping cough), and SARS-CoV-2, and how these antibodies crossed the placenta. Antibodies specific for influenza and whooping cough are relatively common methods. In contrast, not only was SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody transfer to babies significantly reduced, but the transferred antibody was less functional than the antibody against influenza. Decreased transfer was only observed with the third trimester infection.
Scientists say that changes in carbohydrate attachment to SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies (a process called glycosylation) may be due to this reduced transfer from the mother to the foetation in late pregnancy. I found.
Carbohydrate attachment of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in maternal blood was different from that seen with influenza and whooping cough specific antibodies. This carbohydrate pattern allows Covid-specific antibodies to “stack” into the maternal circulation rather than crossing the placenta through placental antibody receptors.
The increase in the total number of maternal antibodies induced by infection, and the higher placental expression of antibody receptors that attract the carbohydrate pattern of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, partially overcome the problem, from mother to fetal.
Interestingly, some of the most well-transmitted antibodies were also the most functional and activating natural killer cells, which could help newborns fight the virus when exposed.
The findings influence the design of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 for pregnant women. Vaccine regimens that can drive high levels of Covid-specific antibodies in the placenta’s preferred glycosylation pattern for selective transfer to the foetation may give better results. “Protection of newborns and babies,” said Andrea Edro, MD, a co-lead author and MGH maternal-fetal medicine expert and assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology at Harvard Medical School.
“We are beginning to define the rules for the introduction of placental antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 for the first time, which promotes the ability to reasonably design vaccines that protect pregnant women and their newborns,” co-author. And core members Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, Galit Alter, PhD said.
In addition, understanding how antibody transfer is altered by trimesters may point to the most desirable window during pregnancy for vaccination to optimize protection for both mothers and infants. ..
(This story is published from the news agency feed without changing the text.)
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