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What does non-identical twins have to do with COVID-19? mutation!




IThe same twins, Stella and Dessary Vigne, were born in the town of Louisiana in 1938 and were not on the map. The fair-skinned black girls left town together at the age of 16 for New Orleans, fleeing the dark future. Stella was mistaken for White in a job interview and continued to deceive to gain her position, eventually marrying her boss and leaving her sister behind. Stella experienced adulthood as white and designy as black.

Vigne’s sisters were born in the imagination of an extraordinary young writer, Brit Bennett.Her bestseller “Half disappearing, ”Traces the experience of twins in a world where what happens to them depends on how others perceive them as black or white. Of course, they live a completely different life. Wealthy Stella in Brentwood, California, and Desiry eating at her hometown waitress. The drama becomes more intense when the grown-up daughters meet. One is a pale blonde and the other is an ebony-black “dark girl”.

Identics and higher multiples are certainly fascinating. 2018 movies 3 identical strangers The story of the Triplet brothers who happened to meet at the age of 19 in 1980. It’s the same as a fictional movie. Parent’s trapReborn in Hayley Mills from 1961 and Lindsay Lohan in 1998, each plays two roles.

Three identical strangers. Credit: Newsday

Twin study

Twins have provided useful tools in genetic research for decades. It’s easy. Features that are shared more often between the same twins than between sibling twins are presumed to have a larger genetic component. On the contrary, the difference between identical twins is thought to have arisen from environmental factors.

Twin studies are often used to examine the basis of behavioral traits, including conditions such as anxiety and depression.However, this approach also applies to less clearly defined characteristics, such as the ability to be wise. Investment decision, Altruism, trust, and even Frequency of mobile phones and text messages..

The entire literature is dedicated to the twin studies revealing the inheritance of political persuasion. The research is rigorous and math cannot be followed, but it seems elusive to explain exactly how gene-encoded proteins cause loyalty-like properties.

“Obligation heritability and turnout” For example, consider “The belief that voting is obligatory” As a property that one or more genes affect. (((Heritability A measure of the percentage of variance of inherited properties Absent The degree to which the characteristics themselves are inherited. ) I’m more comfortable with properties that result from abnormal or missing proteins, such as coagulation factors and enzymes, rather than from emotions and beliefs that are difficult to define.

Twin biology

Sibling twins result from two sperms fertilizing two eggs. Twins share the uterus, but they are not genetically more closely related than their two perfect siblings. Sibling twins are dizygotic or DZ – two zygotes, also known as fertilized eggs.

For identical or monozygotic (MZ) twins, a single sperm fertilizes a single egg and then divides. However, it can occur at different times very early in development, leading to different types of identical twins.

The identical twins (left) are derived from one fertilized egg that splits in two. Dizygotic twins (right) are derived from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperms. Credit: Shutterstock

Division occurs as soon as the fertilized egg divides, or in the first three days, and eventually separate placenta can develop. However, if the first collection of cells (inner cell mass) moves around until day 7 before it separates into two masses, the resulting twins may also share the placenta and possibly the amniotic sac. Examining these structures will tell you when the twins occurred.

The timing of twinning is important. This is because DNA replicates (copies itself) as the cell divides. At that time, mutations such as cutting and pasting document errors and then making multiple copies can occur.Mutations that occur Before The inner cell mass classifies itself into two masses and survives in both twins.But the mutation is happening rear The result of the split is a discrepancy. That is, even though they are called identical, one twin has a mutation and the other has no mutation.

Tracking mutations to distinguish identical twins

Team from Decode genetics Iceland has skillfully identified several mutations that probably distinguish genetically identical twins. They estimated the events during development by comparing the genomic sequences of living individuals. Absent By damaging the embryo.Survey results have been published recently Nature genetics..

(DeCODE is the company that founded the first national biobank, founded in 1996. When the genome project was launched, it caused considerable turmoil about the government’s control of genetic information, but deCODE was genetic. Continued to be a leader in identifying target risk factors .. Today, deCODE is a subsidiary of Amgen.)

Researchers have used the formation of identical twins as a “unique window to early embryonic development,” they write. Lead author Hákon Jónsson explains: “When a cell divides, a mutation is formed, and the daughter cell may have a mutation that indicates the progeny of the mutant cell in the individual. Therefore, a mutation that is present in only one of the twins causes the twins. You can return to cell division, which leads to the development of

To find mutations, the team compared the complete genomic sequences from adipocytes, white blood cells, and cheek lining cells between 387 pairs of identical twins and their parents, offspring, and spouses. Identified twins that are not exact clones. Comparisons with spouses have made it possible to eliminate mutations inherited from their parents, and comparisons with twin offspring have made it possible to infer genetic mutations inherited from twin sperms or eggs.

The degree of difference between pairs of the same twin is quite different, with some twins having more than 100 mutations and some twins not at all. In about 15% of pairs, one twin had many mutations not found in the other. The average is 5.2 mutations.

Mutations that distinguish identical twins occurred during the first few days of development. This explains why mutations tend to be in the majority of cells sampled from individuals. “These two groups of identical twins provide insight into embryonic development in just a few divisions after conception when the embryo is composed of multiple cells,” said deCODE Genetics CEO and founder. One Kari Stefansson said.

This finding can be important in understanding the causes of conditions such as autism and developmental disabilities that may be due to environmental factors when only one identical twin is affected. Instead, the condition may be due to genetic differences between the twins, perhaps suggesting a new therapeutic approach.

Big picture: COVID

A new perspective on identical twins shows the fundamental changes in information molecules that are genetic material, DNA, and RNA.

Since DNA is an information molecule, it changes and mutates. The triplets of building blocks A, C, T, and G are transcribed into RNA molecules and then translated into sequences of 20 amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The trait is derived from protein. In a nutshell, it’s molecular biology.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has RNA. And the sequences of the components of that RNA change as well as the genetic material in our own cells. In short, mutations are part of nature and are at the crossroads of chemistry and biology.

Changes persist if mutations bring new properties or alter existing properties in a way that benefits the organism or virus. This is natural selection, also known as “survival of the fittest.” The word “most suitable” in the context of evolution means successful reproduction. Absent Physical strength. And that’s why certain new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are potentially worrisome.

new “variant” actually set Of genetic changes. They allow SARS-CoV-2 to spread more easily, which in turn increases the number of plays (because they increase the number of plays).R naught) Of the number of people infected in turn, the mutant will inherit the outbreak of the virus-no matter what we do, I think.

Proverbial cats are out of the bag because new variants exist before we notice them, and some countries prioritize the sequencing of the viral genome, while others do not. Efforts to stop the spread of new viral variants by limiting human migration are arguably too slow.

Resistance may certainly be in vain. Mutations will continue to occur. That’s what nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) do.

Adam Lauring, MD, and PhD of the University of Michigan School of Infectious Diseases are experts in evolutionary biology of RNA viruses, putting new mutations in a practical perspective. JAMA audio Publication related to the January 2 clinical review Perspective To JAMA, “Genetic mutations in SARS-CoV-2-what do they mean?” Dr. Emma B. Hodcroft, he said:

“Many mutations that do not affect infectivity occur around the world. There is no evidence that they are more toxic and cause more serious illness or death. Mutations occur. Some Is important and helps the virus do what it does – spread. The secret is to understand which of these mutations are important and which are not. What spreads it. How do you allow it and how do you get over it? I don’t think optimistic mutations will affect vaccination, but as more mutations need to be addressed, weeks to months to come , And a lot of work will be done in the future. “

Ricky Lewis holds a PhD in genetics, is a science writer, and is the author of several books on human genetics. She is an adjunct professor at the Alden March Institute of Bioethics at Albany Medical College.Follow her website Or twitter @rickilewis

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