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Imprisonment is strongly associated with premature death in the United States

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An analysis of U.S. county-level data found a new study by Columbia University’s Merman School of Public Health found a strong link between prison imprisonment and infectious diseases, chronic lower respiratory tract disease, drug use, and suicide mortality. I found out that there is. Researchers have found that this is not so much in the case of heart disease and cancer. The study is the first to investigate the link between prison population growth and multiple specific causes of death at the county level, with increasing evidence suggesting that jailbreak strategies improve public health.Survey results will be published online in the journal Lancet Public Health..

“Our findings highlight the public health benefits of reducing prisons. Importance of intervention to mitigate the negative effects of mass imprisonment Includes greater investment in community-based treatment and social services for substance use disorders, “said Sandhya Kajeepeta, a PhD candidate in the Department of Epidemiology at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, who led the study.

Using U.S. county prison prison rates and county-level mortality data across 1,094 counties from 1987 to 2017, researchers estimated 1 in 1,000. Imprisonment rates in local prisons were associated with 6.5% and 5% increases in mortality. And chronic lower respiratory tract After considering the impact of county-level factors such as crime, poverty, and racial demographics, the next year’s county population (under 75) had an approximately 2.5% increase in drug use and suicide mortality, respectively. , And unemployment.

Increased county-level imprisonment was also associated with a slight increase in counties From (2.1% increase), unintended injury (1.5%, cancer (1.4%), diabetes (1.3%), and cerebrovascular accident (1%).

“As the Biden administration anticipates plans to tackle sustained mass criminalization and imprisonment, our findings show that they are important independent contributors to all major causes of premature death in the counties they are in. It emphasizes the role of local prison imprisonment, “said Kazypeta. “Our findings provide further evidence of population-level public health harm from mass imprisonment. US correctional facilities report some of the highest COVID-19 infection rates in the country. Pandemics highlight the urgent need for jailbreak strategies to significantly reduce numbers of prisons and prisons in our country to save the lives of imprisoned people and control infectious diseases that spread to the region Number of people housed in. “

The United States has the highest imprisonment rate in the world. At any given time, county prisons nationwide hold more than 730,000 prisoners, usually awaiting less than a year in prison or trial. However, more people (more than 11 million) are put in jail each year (mostly awaiting trial), and generally 200,000 people come and go each week. Evidence shows that black Americans are four times more imprisoned in local prisons than white Americans.

In this study, the authors used data from the US National Life Statistics System along with prison imprisonment data from 1,094 counties (36% of all US counties) in the Vera Institute of Justice from 1987 to 2017. And nine common causes of death for counties under the age of 75 (cerebral vascular disease, chronic subrespiratory disease (emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc.), diabetes, heart disease, infections, cancer, drug use, suicide, Unintentional injury) year. The median increase in county prison imprisonment rates during the study period was 1.9 per 1,000 people, with some counties increasing by more than 20 per 1,000 people.

Researchers evaluated medium- to long-term (5 years) and long-term (10 years), assuming that the effects of long-latency causes of death, such as heart disease and cancer, on the community could be felt over time. The effects of prison imprisonment and short-term (1 year) effects. They have county-level characteristics and aging that can affect the relationship between imprisonment and mortality, such as rural poverty and crime rates, unemployment, percentage of county inhabitants who were black, and control of state parties. Was adjusted.

Increased county prison imprisonment rates were associated with increased mortality rates for all causes of death the following year, but these associations weakened over time, especially for infectious diseases and suicide, and county mortality rates decreased. It decreased by 5% and 2.5%, respectively. 10 years later. For causes of death, including cancer, which generally have a long incubation period, the reduction was less pronounced.

Dr. Abdul El-Sayed, co-author of Wayne State University in Detroit, said: “The county prison not only acts as a revolving door that promotes the spread of infectious diseases in the community, but also because of poor ventilation and poor medical standards. , Often dangerously crowded. ” He is also the former director of the city’s health bureau. “Prison takes people of working age out of the community, separates families, disrupts social ties and support networks. Instead of investing in social services to help the government with its financial difficulties. Combined with the money spent in imprisonment, The system ultimately hurt those who think the system is “fixing”. “

The authors state that racial inequalities in the country’s criminal justice system exacerbate existing socio-economic and racial health inequalities. “To address the most pressing public health challenges, including the COVID-19 pandemic and opioid epidemics, public health needs to consider mass criminalization and mass imprisonment,” said Colombia’s assistant professor of epidemiology. Dr. Seth J. Prince said. Mailman School, the lead author of the study. “We need to stop investing in corpse systems that have replaced public health and social infrastructure. Skinning policies such as community-based drug use treatments, housing, education, and investment in work have broad mortality rates. It can generate profits and potentially save thousands of lives. “”


Social and structural factors influence racial disparity in COVID-19 mortality


For more information:
Lancet Public Health, DOI: 10.1016 / S2468-2667 (20) 30283-8

Quote: Containment was obtained from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-02-incarceration-strongly-linked-premature-death.html on February 23, 2021 in the United States (February 23, 2021). It is strongly associated with premature death.

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