As Canada further approves COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears Vaccines, health officials advise you to take the first one available to you, despite its effectiveness.
Experts say that vaccine efficacy and efficacy are two different things.
Efficacy refers to how well a drug (in this case, a vaccine) works under controlled circumstances such as clinical trials. Efficacy refers to how well the drug or vaccine works in the real world.
Dr. Matthew Miller, vice dean of the Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences at McMaster University, said that low efficacy rates do not necessarily mean low efficacy in the real world, even high efficacy vaccines. I said the same can be said.
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He said vaccine efficacy figures tend to be higher than efficacy due to variables occurring in the real world that cannot be explained during clinical trials.
He said the clinical trials were carefully designed to help alleviate the contradiction between efficacy and efficacy. People with underlying health problems or certain types of medications are usually excluded from the study and the side effects found are closely monitored.
However, “in practice, we usually find that the effectiveness number is reasonably lower than the effectiveness number,” he said.
“Vaccines rarely behave in clinical trials to be very effective, but in that case they are much less effective.”
For example, the recently approved AstraZeneca vaccine showed 62% and 72% efficacy. This means that 62% and 72% of participants in the vaccinated group saw a reduction in cases during their respective trials compared to the unvaccinated (or placebo) group. I will.
This differs from the nearly 95% efficacy of mRNA vaccines such as Pfizer / BioNtech and Moderna. However, all four vaccines approved for use in Canada (Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson). Indicated Perfect data on the prevention of death and hospitalization.
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According to Miller, there is a general misconception that vaccines are always meant to prevent someone from getting sick or infected with a virus, but that is not always the immediate goal.
“A vaccine that may not be good at preventing people from getting symptoms, but may be really good at preventing them from getting seriously ill,” he said.
Taking the AstraZeneca vaccine as an example, Miller said it may be “slightly inferior” to the mRNA vaccine in its ability to prevent people from developing symptoms. It is a mild illness. “
“For now, to reduce the number of serious illnesses and deaths that are the result we care most about, we can vaccinate as many people as possible so that we can get immunity as soon as possible. It’s essential, “he said.
Possibility of re-vaccination
According to the Global Health Partnership Gabi, Vaccine Alliance, “Participants are not randomly assigned to treatment for the placebo group,” so vaccine efficacy is measured in “observational studies.”
On its website, Gavi said, “Case-control studies compare the vaccination status of individuals who develop the disease (cases) with a group of disease-free individuals (controls) that represent the population from which the cases originated. Evaluate effectiveness by. Occurs. “
“If the vaccine is effective, the case is more likely to be an unvaccinated individual.”
In the future, Canadians can expect to see the latest recommendations if certain people later need another booster, and in some cases even boost with another vaccine. He said.
“These are all scenarios under consideration,” he said.
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