HIV is a virus that attacks cells in the immune system. If left untreated, the virus can significantly weaken the immune system over time.
Several types of tests are available to determine if someone is infected with HIV.Testing is important in both prevention HIV Helping people infected with the virus seek treatment.
If the test does not detect HIV, the person is said to be HIV negative. However, negative results do not necessarily mean that they are not infected with HIV.
Read below to learn more about the different types of HIV testing and the implications of negative results.
A negative HIV test means that the test did not detect HIV. However, negative results do not necessarily mean that a person is not infected with HIV.
This is because it depends on the type of HIV test Window period.. The test window period is the time between exposure to HIV and the time the test can accurately detect that a person has been infected with HIV.
If a person is tested within the test window period, the test may not be able to detect the presence of the virus and they may give negative results.
If you receive a negative result within a test window period, it is important to get another test after that window period has passed. This helps to see negative results.
In addition, you may be exposed to HIV during the window period. In this situation, the HIV test may not be accurate.
There are three different types HIV test Including:
Ann Antibody test Look for the presence of antibodies to HIV in blood or saliva samples. Antibodies are special proteins made by the immune system in response to disease-causing substances such as HIV.
Many HIV Quick or self-test It is an antibody test. Results are available within 30 minutes, depending on the type of test.
The window period for antibody testing is wide.It can be taken anywhere
Antigen / antibody test
Ann Antigen / antibody The test detects antibodies to HIV and a specific viral protein (antigen) called p24.
A blood sample from a vein in the arm is usually used for this test. However, there are some quick tests available using blood samples from finger puncture wounds.
The time it takes to get results depends on the type of test. If the sample is sent to the laboratory, it may take several days for the results to be obtained. Results of rapid antigen / antibody tests are available within 30 minutes.
Antigen / antibody testing may detect HIV infection earlier than antibody testing because p24 is found before antibodies to HIV are made.
The standard antigen / antibody test window period is as follows:
Nucleic acid test
Nucleic acid test (NAT) looks for the presence of genetic material in the virus in blood samples.
NAT can detect HIV in a person’s blood.
NAT blood samples are sent to the lab for processing. As a result, it may take several days to receive the test results.
NAT is also used to detect the amount of virus in a person’s blood after HIV diagnosis.This is called Viral load test.
HIV-1 is so prevalent that most HIV tests target the detection of HIV-1. These include all three types of tests described above.
At the genetic level, HIV-2 55% or more Different from HIV-1. This means that many types of HIV tests may not be able to detect HIV-2 accurately.
Test guidelines from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) It helps to deal with this. These guidelines recommend that you first use an antigen / antibody test to screen for HIV.
If this test returns positive, order a secondary antibody test to determine if you have HIV-1 or HIV-2. If the test results are uncertain, NAT is performed to confirm or rule out the diagnosis of HIV-1.
HIV-2 is rare in the United States, so NAT for HIV-2 is not always readily available. However, if HIV-2 is suspected,
HIV test results may come back as “uncertain”. Simply put, this means that the test results are unclear. Tests that return to uncertainty usually give a weak positive result.
This type of result is not uncommon.researcher
There are several things that can cause uncertain consequences in the following cases:
- People are very infected with HIV Recently
- An antibody cross-reactivity has occurred.This may be due to something like recent Tetanus vaccination Or a fundamental health condition like Lupus Or Rheumatoid arthritis
- The sample was contaminated
- A technical error occurred during the test
If the HIV test results return to uncertainties, it is usually advisable to repeat the test.
There are several situations in which a medical professional recommends a retest. This includes the following cases:
- Negative test results within the test window period
- Another potential HIV exposure during the test window
- Uncertain test results
Repeat testing based on risk
- Men having sex with men
- Individual sexual partners living with HIV
- People sharing needles
- Individuals receiving the following diagnosis or treatment:
When a person is retested depends on the particular situation. Let’s take a closer look at some of the potential scenarios.
- Negative results within the window period. Healthcare professionals recommend retesting to see negative results
After the test window period has elapsed..
- Exposure during the window period. If another potential exposure occurs during the test window period, medical professionals may at least recommend waiting.
4 weeksBefore retesting, depending on the test window period.
- The result is uncertain. You can repeat the test immediately to rule out technical errors, sample contamination, and so on. If the result of this test is still uncertain, another test is usually done.
2 weeks later..
There are many steps you can take Preventing HIV infection.. These include:
- Use a condom. Use of condoms Helps prevent viral infections during sex.
- Do not share needles. It is important not to share needles or other injectable equipment.
- Perform pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP It is a daily oral medicine. Helps prevent HIV infection during sex and when using injections.
- I take a test. Knowing the status of HIV is a valuable tool for prevention.Test of Other STI This is also important as some sexually transmitted diseases can increase the risk HIV infection.. We also encourage sexual partners to test.
- Ask about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). PEP Is an emergency drug that helps prevent HIV after potential exposure.To be effective, you need to get started Within 72 hours After possible exposure.
Where to get an HIV test
There are many places where HIV testing is available. These include:
- Medical professional office
- Sexual health clinic
- Community Health Center
- VA Medical Center
- Community outreach organization
- State or local health sector
- Facility for treating substance use disorders
You can also take a self-test that you can take at home. Some of these tests provide results in less than 20 minutes. For other types of self-testing, you may need to mail the sample to the lab for testing.
There are several different types of HIV testing. Each type has a different window period to accurately detect HIV infection.
A negative HIV test result means that the particular test used did not detect HIV. However, negative results do not necessarily mean that a person is not infected with the virus.
Retesting is recommended if an individual receives results within the window period of the test or is exposed to another HIV within the window period. Another scenario where retesting can occur is when the results are uncertain.
Taking tests is a valuable tool to prevent HIV infection and ensure that people infected with the virus receive timely treatment. Therefore, it is important that anyone who is concerned about possible HIV infection be tested.
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