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Lifespan of SARS-CoV-2 antibody and cross-neutralization for variants of concern

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Available Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccines Neutralizing antibody It targets the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) peplomer. Although short-term efficacy has been demonstrated, the long-term humoral response in the face of rapidly mutating pathogens has not yet been characterized in detail. Similarly, individuals who recovered from COVID-19 showed similar neutralizing antibody titers to those who received the vaccine. However, long-term immunity and mutual neutralization with newly emerging and more toxic strains remain unconfirmed.

A new study by British researchers found that the activity of neutralizing antibodies collected from the sera of individuals infected with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic was of concern for the B.1.1.7 (or UK) variant. Has been tested against. And the B.1.351 (or South Africa) variant shows that the neutralization potency for these strains is slightly reduced.

Researchers at King’s College, London, Guys and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust recently published their findings as a preprint. medRxiv* Server.

How long does the neutralizing antibody last?

In a previously published paper, the authors studied the antibody response of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 for 3 months, observed peak serum neutralizing activity 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms, and antibody secretion. In the population that declined from here as the cells declined. In this study, when possible, sera were collected from the same individual 10 months after infection. Additional samples were also collected from samples infected with the B.1.1.7 strain 6-73 days ago.

Serum was obtained from 38 individuals infected with COVID-19 during the first wave, 3 months after infection, and 145-175 days after infection (16 participants), 180-217 days after infection in the same individual. Collected from (29 participants), or 257 to 305 days after infection (19 participants). IgG and IgM for the SARS-Cov-2 peplomer were measured and found to decrease, especially 6 months after infection, but were still detectable in some individuals.

We also examined the neutralizing activity of collected sera against HIV-1-based viral particles expressing the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 peplomer, and previously showed a gradual decline 3 months after infection. In this follow-up, the rate of decrease in neutralization activity during the next 3 months was slow, with the highest percentage of samples showing good neutralization at the peak (1 month after infection), from 48.2% to 27.8%. It has been shown to decline to about 3 months, then 13.8% and 15.8% in the next month.

People with the highest antibody titers often experience the most serious symptoms. Symptoms of COVID-19, And the severity of the disease Antibody titer, The group supports this proposal. They also found that these individuals had less variation in antibody response magnitude and more later than individuals with mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 who showed much greater variation in response intensity. It also mentions that it tends to show high titers.

Cross neutralization

Concerned variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 show complete evasion ability against several monoclonal antibodies targeting wild-type SARS-CoV-2. They also showed improved resistance to neutralization with convalescent or vaccine sera collected at the peak of the antibody response. Mutations to peplomer proteins are responsible not only for the increased transmissibility observed in these strains, but also for the increased escape capacity evolved by selective pressure.

Neutralization of wild-type, B.1.1.7, and B.1.351 pseudoviral particles infects serum collected from individuals infected with wild-type COVID-19 10 months ago and recently the B.1.1.7 strain. It was observed in both sera collected from the person who had the virus. In the early stages of antibody application, the B.1.351 strain showed the greatest reduction in neutralization sensitivity compared to wild-type, but the difference was minimal in the later stages after infection. Importantly, infection with the B.1.1.7 strain produced antibodies that were effective against B.1.1.7 and wild-type, each other than those observed in serum during the first wave of the pandemic. It was similar.

Unlike individuals infected with wild-type strains, individuals experiencing severe symptoms from the B.1.1.7 strain have a relatively weaker enhancement of neutralization capacity than individuals with mild or asymptomatic strains. Shown. Increased administration of immunosuppressive drugs in hospitals.

*Important Notices

medRxiv Is not considered definitive, guides clinical practice / health-related behaviors, or is treated as established information because it publishes preliminary scientific reports that have not been peer-reviewed. Please.

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