National Hispanic Heritage Month, which begins on September 15 each year, celebrates Latin Americans, their culture and history. Launched in 1968 by Congress as Hispanic Heritage Week, it was extended to a month in 1988. The celebration begins in the middle rather than the beginning of September as it coincides with National Independence Days. in several Latin American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica celebrate theirs on September 15, followed by Mexico on September 16, Chile on September 18 and Belize on September 21.
Here are some key facts about the Latin American population of nations by geography and characteristics such as language use and origin groups.
As part of our ongoing research on Hispanics in the United States, we have analyzed the evolution of this group over time using several data sources from the US Census Bureau. The decennial census (census data PL94-171) provided state and country population counts, and population estimates provided data on births. We also looked at characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States using the American Community Survey, which provides data on Hispanic origin, language use, country of birth, and level of education. ‘instruction. The ACS data was primarily accessed through the University of Minnesota’s Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Finally, the Current Population Survey provided data on education.
The Hispanic population of the United States reached 62.1 million in 2020, up from 50.5 million in 2010. The 23% increase in the Hispanic population has been faster than the growth rate of the nations (+ 7%) , but a slower increase than that of the Asian population (+ 36%). In 2020, Hispanics made up nearly one in five people in the United States (19%), down from 16% in 2010 and just 5% in 1970.
Hispanics have played a major role in the growth of America’s population over the past decade. The U.S. population grew by 22.7 million from 2010 to 2020, and Hispanics accounted for 51% of that increase, a larger share than any other racial or ethnic group.
The number of Latinos who identify as multiracial has increased dramatically. Over 20 million Latinos identified with more than one race on the 2020 census, up from just 3 million in 2010. The increase could be due to a number of factors, including changes to the census form that allow people to identify themselves more easily. multiple races and growing racial diversity among Latinos. The growth of multiracial Latinos comes primarily from those who identify as white and another race (i.e., those who write in an answer to the racial question) a population that has grown from 1.6 million to 17.0 million over the past decade. At the same time, the number of Latinos who identify as white and no other race has increased from 26.7 million to 12.6 million.
Hispanics have become the largest racial or ethnic group in California. This demographic milestone occurred in 2014, and is a first for the state with the largest Hispanic population in the country. In 2020, there were an estimated 15.6 million Hispanics in California, up from 14.0 million in 2010. The non-Hispanic white population, the second largest group, has grown from 15.0 million to 13.7 million during this period, reflecting a broader national trend.
Latinos made up 39% of California’s population in 2020, among the highest shares in the country. In the other two largest Latino states in terms of population, Texas (11.4 million) and Florida (5.7 million), Latinos made up 39% and 26% of residents, respectively. New Mexico has 1.0 million Latinos, and they made up 48% of the population, the highest share in the country.
Three states saw their Hispanic populations increase by more than one million from 2010 to 2020. Texas (+2.0 million), California (+1.6 million) and Florida (+1.5 million) together accounted for 43% of the nations Hispanic population growth over the past decade. New York (+ 531,000) and New Jersey (+ 447,000) recorded the second largest increases. All 50 states and the District of Columbia have experienced growth in their Hispanic populations since 2010.
North Dakota and South Dakota have experienced the fastest growing Hispanic populations since 2010. The number of Hispanics in North Dakota more than doubled (+ 148%) from 2010 to 2020, while the number of Hispanics in North Dakota more than doubled (+ 148%) from 2010 to 2020, while in South Dakota, it increased by 75%. Even with high growth rates, each of these states now has fewer than 40,000 Hispanics, among the smallest populations in the country. The slowest growth occurred in New Mexico (+ 6%) and California (11%), states with large Hispanic populations.
Newborn babies have driven the growth of the Hispanic American population, a trend that accelerated in the 2010s due to a decline in immigration. From 2010 to 2019, 9.3 million Hispanic babies were born in the United States, which is similar to the 2000s total. In comparison, 3.5 million Hispanic immigrants arrived in the United States from 2010 to 2019 , down substantially from the 6.5 million who arrived in the 2000s. This is a reversal of historical trends. In the 1980s and 1990s, immigration led to the growth of the Hispanic population in the United States due to the arrival of more immigrants than babies born.
The share of Latinos in the United States who speak English fluently is increasing. In 2019, 72% of Latinos aged 5 and over were fluent in English, up from 59% in 2000. US-born Latinos are driving this growth, as their share in this measure increased from 81% to 91% during this period. By comparison, 37% of Latino immigrants were fluent in English in 2019, a percentage that has increased somewhat since 2000. At the same time, the share of Latinos who speak Spanish at home declined from 2000 to 2019 ( 78% to 70%). Among those born in the United States, this share rose from 66% to 57%. Almost all Latino immigrants, 94% in 2019, report speaking Spanish at home.
Although the share of Latinos who speak Spanish at home has declined, the number of those who do so fell from 24.6 million in 2000 to 39.1 million in 2019. Meanwhile, 39.8 million Latinos spoke fluent in English in 2019.
The share of Hispanic Americans with college experience has increased since 2010. About 42% of Hispanic American adults aged 25 and over had at least some college experience in 2019, up from 36% in 2010. More Hispanic women than men. Hispanic men attended college, although the share with some or more college experience increased among Hispanic women (38% to 45%) and Hispanic men (33% to 39%). Overall, the share of Hispanics with a bachelor’s degree or above increased over this period, from 13% to 18%.
The number of Latinos enrolled in college also increased from 2010 to 2019, from 2.9 million to 3.6 million. In 2019, women made up a significantly higher share of Latino students than men, 56% versus 44%. (A gender gap in college enrollment exists among all racial groups.) Among all U.S. students, the share of Latinos enrolled in college increased from 14% in 2010 to 19% in 2019.
People of Mexican descent made up nearly 62% (about 37.2 million) of the country’s overall Hispanic population in 2019. Those of Puerto Rican descent are the second largest group, with 5.8 million (about 3.3 million). million live on the island as of 2020). ); their numbers have increased in part because of people leaving Puerto Rico and moving to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Six other Hispanic groups in the United States each number approximately 1 million or more: Cubans, Salvadorans, Dominicans, Guatemalans, Colombians, and Hondurans.
The fastest growing population among Latin Americans has occurred among people from Venezuela, Guatemala, and Honduras. From 2010 to 2019, the Venezuelan population in the United States grew 126% to 540,000, by far the fastest growing rate. Guatemalans saw a 49% increase, followed by a 47% increase among the Honduran population.
In contrast, the number of people of Mexican origin only increased by 13% between 2010 and 2019, among the lowest growth rates of the top 10 origin groups. At 6%, Ecuador’s population has experienced the lowest growth rate among the main origin groups.
Four in five Latinos are US citizens. In 2019, 80% of Latinos living in the country are US citizens, up from 74% in 2010. This includes people born in the United States and its territories (including Puerto Rico), people born abroad to relatives Americans and immigrants who have become naturalized citizens. Among the original groups, virtually all Puerto Ricans are US citizens. Spaniards (93%), Panamanians (88%) and Mexicans (81%) have some of the highest citizenship rates, while Hondurans (51%) and Venezuelans (48%) have the highest rates. low.
The share of Latino Americans who are immigrants is declining and varies by source group. From 2007 to 2019, the number of Latino immigrants increased slightly, from 18.0 million to 19.8 million. But immigrants made up a declining share of the Latin American population, dropping from 40% to 33% during this period, as the number of US-born Latinos increased and the arrival of new immigrants slowed.
Less than a third of Latinos of Mexican origin (29%) were born abroad. This is much lower than the shares among the other major groups according to the population Hondurans (63%), Colombians (62%), Guatemalans (61%), Salvadorians (57%), Cubans (56%) and Dominicans (53%) . Each of these groups saw the immigrant share of their population decline from 2007 to 2018. In contrast, 77% of Venezuelans were born abroad, the highest of any original group, and up from at 73% in 2007. People born in Puerto Rico are Americans. citizens at birth.
Note: This article has been regularly updated since its initial publication on September 16, 2014.
Jens Manuel Krogstad is a senior writer / editor specializing in Hispanics, Immigration, and Demography at the Pew Research Center. Luis Noe-Bustamante is a research analyst specializing in global migration and Hispanic trends at the Pew Research Center.
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