China has overtaken the United States as the world leader in both scientific research output and high-impact studies, according to a report released by Japan’s Ministry of Science and Technology.
The report, which was released by Japan’s National Institute of Science and Technology Policy (NISTP) on Tuesday, found that China now publishes the most scientific research papers each year, followed by the United States and of Germany.
The figures were based on annual averages between 2018 and 2020 and drawn from data compiled by analytics firm Clarivate.
The Japanese NISTP report also found that Chinese research accounted for 27.2% of the world’s top 1% most cited papers. The number of citations a research paper receives is a commonly used metric in academia. The more a study is cited in subsequent articles by other researchers, the greater its citation impact.
The US accounted for 24.9% of the top 1% of research studies, while UK research took third place with 5.5%.
China published an annual average of 407,181 scientific articles, surpassing the 293,434 U.S. journal articles and accounting for 23.4 percent of global research output, according to the report.
China accounted for a high proportion of research in materials science, chemistry, engineering and mathematics, while American researchers were more prolific in research in clinical medicine, basic life sciences and physics.
The report was released the day US President Joe Biden signed the Chips and Science Act, a law that would authorize $200 billion in research funding over 10 years to make US scientific research more competitive with China.
The Chinese Embassy in the United States said last month that China was firmly opposed to the bill which it said was enshrined in [a] cold war and zero-sum game mentality.
The high-impact finding is in line with research published earlier this year, which found that China overtook the United States in 2019 in the top 1% measure and overtook the European Union in 2015.
Papers that receive more citations than 99% of research are work considered to belong to the class of Nobel laureates, at the forefront of science, said the study’s co-author, the Dr Caroline Wagner. The United States has tended to rate China’s work as substandard. That seems to have changed.
The United States still spends more on research and development in the corporate and academic sectors than any other country, according to the report. China has the largest number of researchers in the corporate and academic sectors among major countries. In the business sector, the United States and China are tied, and both are growing rapidly.
China is one of the best countries in the world in terms of the quantity and quality of scientific papers, Shinichi Kuroki of the Japan Science and Technology Agency told Nikkei Asia. In order to become the true world leader, it will have to continue to produce internationally recognized research, he said.
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