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Does eating foods containing emulsifiers increase the risk of T2D?

Does eating foods containing emulsifiers increase the risk of T2D?


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Various food additive emulsifiers such as total carrageenan, carrageenan gum, tripotassium phosphate, sodium citrate, and guar gum can increase the risk of: type 2 diabetes (T2D) indicated recent studies.


  • Food emulsifiers are widely used to enhance the texture and extend shelf life of various ultra-processed foods, but they have previously been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
  • In this study, dietary intake data of 104,139 adults (79.2% female, mean age 42.7 years) enrolled in the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort Study in France from May 2009 to April 2023 was collected nonconsecutively from the time of participation. It was evaluated 24 hours a day for 3 days. Tests are then performed every six months to determine your risk of T2D.
  • Participants' dietary records linked to a food composition database were used to quantify food additive intake.
  • T2D cases were identified using a multi-source approach including self-report, health questionnaires, National Health Insurance System databases, and/or death records.


  • During a mean follow-up period of 6.8 years, 1,056 incident T2D cases were reported.
  • Almost all participants (99.7%) were exposed to at least one food additive emulsifier, with the main culprits being ultra-processed fruits and vegetables (18.5%), cakes and biscuits (14.7%), and dairy products. (10.0%).
  • Consumption of the following emulsifiers increased the risk of T2D.
    • Total carrageenan and carrageenan gum (3% increased risk for each 100 mg/day increase; P < .001)
    • Tripotassium phosphate (15% increased risk for each 500 mg/day increase; P = .023)
    • Acetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (4% increased risk for each 100 mg/day increase; P = .042)
    • Sodium citrate (4% increased risk for each 500 mg/day increase; P = .008)
    • Guar gum (11% increased risk for each 500 mg/day increase; P < .0001)
    • Gum arabic (3% increased risk for each 1000 mg/day increase; P = .013)
    • Xanthan gum (8% increased risk for each 500 mg/day increase; P = .013)

in fact:

in Attached commentary“The findings from this and other studies will help regulators and policy makers set limits and improve the use of food additives to provide more benefits to consumers.'' “This could prompt a reconsideration of the rules governing the use of emulsifiers and other additives by the food industry, including requiring better disclosure of content.” Informed choice. ”


The research was led by Dr. Clara Salame from the Nutritional Epidemiology Research Team, Center for Epidemiology and Statistics, Sorbonne Paris North and Paris Cité Universities, INSERM, INRAE, and CNAM, in Paris, France. online in Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.


The observational nature of this study is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship. There may have been measurement error in emulsifier exposure, especially for products exempt from labeling requirements. The demographics of this cohort include a higher proportion of women and a health-conscious population, which may impact the generalizability of the study results.


This research was funded by the European Research Council, and the NutriNet-Santé study received support from a number of public institutions, including Santére de la Santé, Santé publique France, and the Sorbonne Paris-North University. The authors declared no conflicts of interest.




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