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Organ transplant recipients remain vulnerable to COVID-19 after the second dose of vaccine: study

 


Countries around the world are doing their best to increase population inoculation for COVID-19, with a particular focus on the high-risk sections. Almost all of these groups are believed to be well protected by the vaccine. Nonetheless, a new study states that organ transplant recipients at high risk due to immunodeficiency are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 even after receiving a second vaccination.

A follow-up to their previous work, according to a study by Johns Hopkins medical researchers, two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine provide some protection (54% overall) for patients with solid organ transplants. .. However, it is not enough to relax important safety measures such as physical distance and wearing a mask.

“Based on our findings, we recommend that transplant recipients and other immunocompromised patients continue to practice strict COVID-19 safety precautions after vaccination,” said the lead author of the study. Dr. Brian Boyarski emphasized in a statement.

Insufficient antibody levels

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When you receive a solid organ transplant, such as the kidneys, heart, or lungs, you are often prescribed medication to suppress your immune system. This is done so that their bodies do not reject the organs they receive. However, such treatments can affect the body’s ability of transplant recipients to make antibodies against foreign bodies. Unfortunately, it also contains defensive ones generated in response to the vaccine.

Before them Research Researchers, published in March 2021, evaluated the antibody-producing ability of participants who are organ transplant recipients. They received the first dose of one of the two mRNA vaccines, Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech, for COVID-19. Unfortunately, only 17% of participants produced sufficient antibodies after a single double-dose course of the COVID-19 vaccine.

Evaluation of the effect of the second administration

In the current study, the authors investigated the immunogenic response in 658 transplant recipients after receiving a second dose of either vaccine. No participant was previously diagnosed with COVID-19 and completed a double-dose regimen between December 16, 2020 and March 13, 2021.

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Scientists have learned that only 98 (15 percent) of the 658 participants have detectable antibodies 21 days after the first dose of the vaccine. These results were similar to those obtained in previous studies (17%).

Twenty-nine days after receiving the second dose, the number of participants with identifiable antibodies increased to 357 (54%) out of 658. After administration of both doses, 301 (46 percent) of the 658 participants had no detectable antibody. 259 participants produced antibodies only after receiving the second dose.

“After the second shot, the number of people with detectable antibodies increased, which was 54% overall, but in the second study, antibody levels reached levels sufficient to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of transplant recipients was still good, lower than what is normally found in people with a healthy immune system, “Dr. Boyarski said.

Need for attention

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In addition, the team found that among the patients who participated, those who were younger, were not taking immunosuppressive drugs (including antimetabolites), and were receiving the Moderna vaccine. I also discovered that. These findings were similar to the associations witnessed in the single-dose study published in March.

“Given these observations, transplant recipients should not assume that two doses of vaccine guarantee more immunity to SARS-CoV-2 than after one dose.” Highlighting Dr. Dolly Segev, co-author Research..

Dr. Segev COVID-19 (New Coronavirus Infection) Vaccines in solid organ transplant recipients. He also concluded that adjustments to immunosuppressive therapy or more booster shots should be included to ensure that sufficient levels of antibody are produced in this population.

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