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The deep ocean circulation around Antarctica may be collapsing

The deep ocean circulation around Antarctica may be collapsing


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Warming in the deep ocean water from 3,000 to 6,500 meters deep could cause the Antarctic overturning circulation to drop by more than 40% by 2050. (Matthew England and Qian Li)

There are worrying signs that freshwater streams melting in Antarctica are cutting off the currents of cold, salty, oxygen-rich water that drive essential deep-ocean currents. These powerful currents store and transport large amounts of heat and carbon around the world and support marine life by bringing nutrient-rich water from the depths to the surface. A slowing of this overturning circulation could promote further melting and change precipitation patterns around the globe.

The Straits Times | 4 min reading

Reference: Nature paper

Researchers have repurposed a bacterial molecular syringe to deliver proteins, such as genome-editing Cas9 or a cancer-killing toxin, into human cells or the brains of mice. The bacteria Photorhabdus asymbioticaThe injection system usually only works on insect cells. The team modified the structure of the system so that it could recognize cells of other species and accept payloads, including the Cas9 protein, which is five times larger than the usual syringe payload. The method could be a way to deliver protein-based drugs and address one of the major hurdles of gene editing: getting the CRISPRCas9 system to where it’s needed.

Nature | 4 min reading

Reference: Nature paper

After publishing a report on data related to the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic, the GISAID genome center briefly canceled and then restored the report’s authors’ access to the online database. GISAID said the report’s authors had not done enough to protect the interests of the Chinese team that had generated the data on which the report was based. The authors of the report deny this. The incident, which GISAID is still investigating, has sparked a debate about how and when researchers should share findings based on data found in online repositories.

Nature | 7 min reading

Scientists can recover up to 70% of the lithium inside a battery by grinding the cathode with aluminum foil. Unlike commercial processes, this does not need high temperatures or concentrated acids. The mechanical force during grinding initiates a chemical reaction, although exactly how this mechanochemistry works is unclear. Currently, perhaps 15% of the metal in the battery is recovered. The European Union, for example, has set a target of recovering 80% of the lithium in batteries by 2031. Lithium battery consultant Hans Eric Melin warns that the mechanical chemical recycling process is a proof of principle rather than a changing technology. the game.

Nature | 4 min reading

Reference: Chemistry of communications paper

Hundreds of researchers gathered outside the German research ministry in Berlin last week to demand improvements to working conditions in academia. The protest is the latest flashpoint in a long-running debate over a law that means postdocs can be employed on fixed-term contracts for no more than six years after completing their doctorates. The protest was part of a backlash against a since-withdrawn ministry proposal to lower the limit to three years. Those who cannot secure permanent employment in time may be forced to leave academia or pursue research careers elsewhere.

Nature | 5 min reading

Features and opinion

Urban researcher Carlos Moreno’s 15-minute city concept, in which amenities such as shops and parks are within a short walk or bike ride, has become popular among city planners. She too made him a target of climate change deniers and QAnon conspiracy theorists, which misrepresented the idea as part of a global conspiracy to control people’s movements. With more scientists being the subject of harassment and misinformation online, Moreno notes that many are relatively alone and unsupported in how to deal with it. It is completely unbelievable that we can receive a death threat just for working as scientists, he says.

New York Times | 6 min reading

Read more: I hope you die: how the COVID pandemic unleashed attacks on scientists (Nature | 14 min reading, from 2021)

In the 1950s and 1960s, scientists tracked immune cells called lymphocytes which involve T cells and B cells in their journey around the body, determining where they go and what they do. The work laid the foundation for everything we know about T cells today, including how they are activated to fight infections and how they form memory populations that provide long-term immunity.

Nature | Video 3 min

Read more: Explore and celebrate the key studies that advanced our understanding of T cells (Nature Milestone | 9 minute read, including some cool videos)

Quote of the day

Arati Prabhakar, US President Joe Biden’s chief science adviser, says her background spent half in public service and half in Silicon Valley will help her break new ground in science, technology and innovation. (Nature | 6 min read)

Today I am meditating how to transcribe bird sounds, either with phonetic alphabet or spectrogram. My favorite is feed, in which bird vocalizations are imitated using existing human words. Look Cornell Labs’ amazing bird database to confirm that the flycatcher by olive (Kontopus to cover) really whistle, quick, three beers!

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