High load Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Lacuna from the nasal cavity of infected individuals, both pre- and post-symptom, including asymptomatic individuals.Disinfect the nasal passages of people who are already suffering or not suffering COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection) (# If there is no character limit, add parentheses when it first appears Can it help reduce infectivity? prevention,Respectively.
Numerous nasal disinfectants are available, many of which are specifically aimed at combating certain infections.Segoron et al. (2020) A thorough review of the literature published in the last decade, scrutinizing eight nasal disinfectants as COVID-19 preventatives, taking into account the mechanism of action, toxicity, and mechanism of action. .. In vivo And In vitro Evidence for a similar virus. Some of these potential preventative disinfectants are discussed in detail below.
Nasal disinfectants have been studied as a way to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Image Credit: Josep Suria / Shutterstock.com
Nose disinfectant for consideration
Lactoperoxidase is an enzyme that is secreted by various mucous glands and acts as a natural antibacterial agent. In the presence of iodide (I—) Or thiocyanate (SCN)—) Ion, lactoperoxidase, catalyzes the formation of water from hydrogen peroxide, iodite (OI)—) Or hypochlorite (OSCN)—)ion.
These ions interfere with bacterial respiration, glycolysis, and respiration by forming strong bonds with thiol-containing molecules and disrupting production pathways. Similarly, evidence indicates that surface proteins of various viruses can be destroyed and damaged by these ions, which can interfere with the formation of other viral proteins and nucleic acids.
Interestingly, the combination of lactoperoxidase enzyme with hydrogen peroxide and iodide or thiocyanate is clearly more effective as an antibacterial agent than the major product iodide or hypothiocyanate ion alone. This is probably due to the production of more reactive intermediates that have not yet been detected. Anyway, this combination is currently being used effectively in toothpaste and mouthwash and has the potential to be rapidly deployed as a COVID-19 prophylaxis.
Lactoferrin is another protein that is naturally secreted into various body fluids such as saliva, tears and mucus and acts as an antibacterial agent. Lactoferrin binds to proteoglycans on the surface of host cells, preventing cell contact with pathogens and preventing viruses from entering the cell.
A study conducted by Serrano et al.. (2020) The study was hampered by stakeholder support, but aimed at demonstrating symptom relief in COVID-19 patients with lactoferrin and zinc supplementation. Nevertheless, lactoferrin has shown excellent antiviral activity against various RNA and DNA-based viruses in other studies and may currently be given as an oral supplement to infants, resulting in COVID-19. It may be used as a prophylactic drug.
Interferon is a signaling protein released by infected cells that primes adjacent cells to protect them from the virus. Interferon-α nasal drops have been shown to be effective against coronavirus infections such as SARS. In vitro 2006 test, and animal test show Effectiveness In blocking or mitigating SARS-CoV-1 infection.
Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to inhibit the natural secretion of interferon from host cells, making exogenous supplementation an attractive prospect. In a 2020 study that is currently preprinted and not yet peer-reviewed, approximately 3,000 Chinese front-line healthcare professionals receive daily recombinant human interferon-α in the form of nasal drops for 28 days. it was done. Acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection during the period. However, this study is difficult to compare with controls, so additional studies need to confirm the results. In addition, interferon-α is relatively expensive and is unlikely to be considered a prophylactic by anyone but the frontline workers.
Diagram of SARS-CoV-2 particles being inhaled. Image Credit: ilusmedical / Shutterstock.com
Povidone iodine is a disinfectant that has been applied to the skin and small wounds of patients for decades and is most commonly used before and after surgery due to its slow adsorption rate.In Vidra’s treatise et al. (2020) Polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine, usually orally administered, was applied to SARS-CoV-2 at a concentration of 0.5% to 1.5%. In vitro, All concentrations show complete virus-killing activity within 15 seconds.
As a nasal spray, the chemical is currently undergoing Stage III clinical trials for the treatment of colds and may have important uses for COVID-19. However, toxicity remains a mild concern, as it is not currently recommended for pregnant women or women with thyroid problems. However, if it proves to be an effective precaution, it is widely available and relatively inexpensive to manufacture.
Alcohol has been widely regarded as the best simple disinfectant, especially against lipophilic enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, which are easily destroyed by alcohol. Ethanol at a concentration of about 70% or higher is usually sufficient, but some studies have shown that effective inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 is only 30%.
However, a hospital study evaluating bacterial transport in the nasal passages found that the effect of the spray was temporary and worn after 8 hours. If this also applies to its effects on SARS-CoV-2, alcohol-based nasal drops may be a good routine prophylaxis that is rarely applied to people who are already infected.
Alcohol vapors have been proposed instead of sprays to better fill the airways and ensure perfect contact. In any case, no thorough studies have been conducted to evaluate the applicability of alcohol-based nasal disinfection for SARS-CoV-2.
There are other antiviral nasal drops under development or under development that may have some effect on SARS-CoV-2. An example is a spray using dendrimer, the active ingredient of some commercial antiviral gels. This molecule binds to the SARS-CoV-2 peplomer and prevents it from entering the host cell.
In particular, because the virus replicates in the host cell, the true antiviral drugs available are often very cytotoxic, and the high replication rate of the virus causes resistant mutants to occur when eradication is incomplete. You need to understand what to do. This is why most of the chemicals listed here destroy the virus through the production of reactive oxygen species or direct membrane perturbations. On the other hand, it is difficult to develop tolerance.
This article contains information from unpeer-reviewed preliminary scientific reports and is therefore considered definitive, guides clinical / health-related behavior, and is treated as established information. Should not be.
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- Serrano, G. , et al. (2020) Liposomal lactoferrin as a potential prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. International Journal of Health Science Research, 8 (1). https://ijrhs.org/sites/default/files/IntJResHealthSci-8-1-8.pdf
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- * Meng, Z. , et al. (2020) Experimental trial of recombinant human interferon alpha nasal drops to prevent COVID-19 in medical staff in endemic areas. medRxiv.. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.11.20061473v2
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